American History study notes

By franwords

November 23, 2015

Category: writing


The English Context 1550-1650

Bridenbaugh Vexed and Troubled Englishmen
Dailyn The Peopling of British N. America
Jennings The Invasion of America
Stone, The Crisis of the Aristocracy

Migration Who? English, no Scots till mid C17th Columbus.
1497 Cabot, Newfoundlands.
C16th Drake, Raleigh.
The transplanted men and women colonists belonged to Brit Empire. 60,000 people left England 1600- 1670. In Brit rural soc to own land key status. Over C17th Aristocracy power, value and influence greatly increased. House of Lords. Patronage over House of Commons depend on local influence, landed estates.

Late C16th, early C17th consolidation of land ownership. England 50% owned by 9,000 aristos and 30% owned by 180,000 yeomen. Aristos up to 20,000 acres and £20,000 income.

1640-60 Civil war Glorious Revolution. Overthrow James II sets seal of aristo dominance of English society until WWI. Why consolidation of land? Inflation. Late Eliz, early Stuart times. Late C16th at 3% but never experienced before, devastating effect, food price rises. 1) Rapid rise in pop 2) Static food supp

1520s 2.3 million No
of economy
1550 3 million
1600 4 million
1650 5 million

1600 price of wheat rose eight times since 1500 therefore rise in rents and no increase in wages. Quarter to half pop lived in absolute poverty. People forced onto roads to look for food. 1590s harvest failures and bubonic plague. Most people aged 15-25 also age of most colonists. Aristo’s reaction worry make peas work harder. Elizabethan poor law legislation. Paradox aristos preach virtue of work yet ‘gentlemen live idly and without manual labour.’ Some of those aristos made it to Virginia and chose to die even when own survival at risk rather than work. Carried old world values to the new world.

Maj of peas unemployed, underemployed and hungry.
1450 – 1550 Cloth indust boom
1550 – 1650 Cloth indust decline

Richest men
1500 Spring of Lareham, cloth
1640 Earl of Cork, colonist Ire, symbolises central shift.

The First Colony, Virginia

Cloth industry decline aggravated by thirty years w economic and w Spain. Hardest hit areas SW England, Gloucestershire, Somerst, Devon, Cornwall, East Anglia, Norfolk, Suffolk, Essex. Communities had been self sufficient. 1770 most settlers came from these areas, all strongholds of puritanism. Explanation for move economic or spiritual?

PUSH FACTORS. Younger sons faced primogeniture laws. Crisis of status only resolved by acquisition of a landed estate. Look to Ireland, Carribean, end C16th begin C17th small proportion 1-2% of 60,000 1600 to 1660. Only exception first voyage to Virginia one third. Cross section of people but only 1% people so conservative.

PULL FACTORS. Pre Indust world. Images 1) Ireland. Foster Elizabethan misconceptions of Ire decided Irish were savages, treated as such. Primitive and arrogant attitudes paralleled in the New World. Unable to understand native Indians like the Irish. Use same pretexts and excuses. Similarly w black slaves. Labeled lazy, unclean ,sexually promiscuous therefore could allow genocide. ‘Only good Indian was a dead one’. Other French, Ger colonists integrated and assimilated native Indians into their culture more than Brits.
Visual images of a virgin land. Sheer emptiness of America powerful. W Euro soc crowded. Remote, un-spoilt landscape, paradise regained. Anti image savage wilderness. New world incredible, immeasurable, horrifying, unpredictable. Require v self disciplined people challenge for the puritans. Can cope with adversity but not with prosperity. Masochistic streak garden of Eden, howling desert both serve to recruit people.
Spanish and Portuguese had entire American Continent. Last quarter abortive attempts to set up Newfoundland and Virginia. Complete failure. Until James VI and I in 1603. Conclusion of peace w Spain 1604. Pirateering made illegal.
First four decades English plant seven settlements
Virginia 1607
Plymouth 1620
Massachusetts 1630
Maryland 1634
Connecticut 1635
Rhode Island 1636
New Haven 1638
Attempt to estab viable socs, have to meet and overcome probs
Need settlers
Ensure survival
Development to Southern Society 1610 – 50

Overview to 1660. The Chesapeake Virginia 1606 –10.
By 1660 Virginia, New England, New Foundland all first settlements.
French and Dutch also seeking out own claims. New France and New Netherland. Settlers never more than a tenth of what English settlers came to. In struggle 150 yrs climax seven yrs war, control of N America preponderance of numbers can control territory give to English Brits decisive advantage to control. One million Americans reduced by 90% by 1800s. No immunity to Euro settlers diseases.
Virginia named after Eliz I by Raleigh, most important colony. 1580s already some English. But efforts come to nothing. Begin again 1600. Succession of James VI and I revival of interest.
1606 Merchant company support by J I Virginia Co of London puts together three ships carried 144 people, males not intended to remain abroad.
Susan Constant 100 tons
Discovery 40 tons
Godspeed 20 tons
April 1607 crew reduced to 105
May 1607 get off ship
First settlement Jamestown. Inhospitable unfamiliar environment site chosen able to defend v Spanish but marshy, low lying. Infested w Malaria. Mosquitos. Soon, hunger and disease. After six mths only 38 people from higher levels of society. Thirty six were gentlemen, no manual sskills. Too many w specialised skills, jeweller, perfumer, tobacco pipe maker, contemp sophist London. Mentally and physically unfit to face hardships.
Emergence of character Captain John Smith 1580 – 1631.
Hero arrived in irons argued w gentleman came from humble origs. Tenant farmer from Lincolnshire became mercenary, fought Turks. Rescued by a princess 1607 exploring when captured by Indians. Brought before Powhatun prostrate on ground. Daughter Pocahontas flung her body over Smith and spared him, she was only ten years old, doubtful, spectacular, only there 1606-9. Accident w powder.
Sept 1608 Smith elected as President of colony. Sets up a military regime organised into work groups. Tasks involve clearing dense woodland around James town. Noticed a lot of swearing. Cold water thrown over them for every word. Actually worked. Twelve months works. Transhumance more away during hot humid months healthy people.
Second Charter in London 1609. New organisation 56 Cos involved and 650 individuals assembled fleet of 9 ships and 500 people. June 1609 set sail. One shipwrecked off Bermuda, inspirtion for Shakespeare’s Tempest. Aug 1609 rest embark. Have to endure most infamous winter ever recorded Starving time. By Mar 1610 only 60 people alive. Malaria, Malnutrition, Dysentry. Some resorted to cannibalism. Some decided to abandon Jamestown sail home. Just then three ships sailed up river. New governor Lord De La Warr Summer 1650 Virginia begins again.

The New England Alternative.

Development of Southern Society 1610 – 50

Survival Laws, Divine, Moral & Martial, Dale’s Laws 1611
Finding people
Concessions 1) Economic headright 2) Political assembly
Finding profit. John Rolfe, Tobacco
Massacre of 1622
Maryland Henrietta Maria = Charles I wife

1) Survival, 1611
Sir Thomas Gates Debuty gov
Sir Thomas Dale Marshal
Gates becomes governor when De la Warr goes back to England a sick aristo. They write ‘laws divine, moral and Initial. This code severe military regiment control daily life of citizens. Defense criticise comp policy failure to attend twice daily church service whipped if once and executed if three times.
Someone who stole some oatmeal from neighbour red hot iron through tongue then tied to tree till starved. Basic purpose of law get people to work. Work gangs specific tasks. Summer 5-8 hours, Winter 3-6hrs. 3-5 hrs lunch. Far less than hours demanded by English law. Dale’s laws remain till 1619 to solve immed prob of survival.

2) How find people? 1616 Only 350 people in Virginia. 1619 at time of concessions 1200 people arrive includes substantial No of women. Permanent colony. Women sold off as wives to planters. Price 50lbs of tobacco.
1620 – 21 Another 140 women ‘an extraordinary choice lot’. Shortage of women until early C18th revolution. 1640 4 males, one little female subtly used in pamphlets used to recruit

3) Company makes concessions, new governor 1618 and Yeardley
Headright Policy
Give 50 acres to anyone who crossed Atlantic at own expense. A further 50 acres for anyone you brought with you family
Political Assembly
Series of delegates elected by people all males over 21 can vote. First Assembly met Jamestown Jul 1619, six days hot and sweaty, two died. Eighteen sick so fold up and go home. Achieve little but that is superficial. Symbolic importance, roots of American democracy.

4) John Rolfe married Pocahontas 1614. She converts to Christianity and changes name to Rebecca. Taken to England and shown to James. Dies of TB before gets back to America. As early as 1560 Tobacco trade. Jaques Nicot French ambassador to ? expensive thought to be aphrodisiac healthy. Only insight Counterblast to Tobacco James VI and I
‘Loathsome to the eye, Dangerous to the brain, Harmful to the lungs..’

However becomes successful. Native Virginan plant too bitter and acrid. Takes west Indian Carribean strain tobacco growns well in Virginia 1612-13. Jamestown becomes ghost town. Pop disperses to raise tobacco. Tobacco growing characterised by soil exhaustion. Drains soil of nitrogen and pot ash. Lies fallow for two to three years. Move on Maryland. Geography of Chesapeake bay region. Tobacco put in Hogsheads barrels ½ tons roll down to waterside.

1615 2.000lbs
1617 20,000lbs
1620 40,000lbs
1625 500,000lbs
1629 1,500,000

Viginia boom colony. 1615-30 parallel to California gold rush 1850.

5) The Massacre of 1622 on March 22nd, Good Friday
when Indians attack whites, massacre
when whites attack Indians, battle
Indian chief Opechancanough much fiercer prouder man eighty years old. Increasing numbers and arrogance. Having breakfast with English settlers. 347 killed out of 1200 total pop. Change development of white red Inidans. Whites systematic process of genocide.

Richard B. Morris The Readers Encyclopedia of the American West
Examine critically the philosophy of the declaration of Independence. Judicious. Take evidence critic. The love of wisdom, what gave rise to dec of Indep. Social economic, territory religion disease. Develop 5,000yrs in one generation. Hugh Brogan.

Assimilation and Nation building. German society. Usefulness of Boewulf stress ostentation and liberty, feud, law, role of women. Merovingian Gaul military success.

American Puritanism.

Maryland, Calvert Baltimore Toleration Act 1649
The New England Alternative Pilgrims, Puritans, dissidents
Plymouth Colony William Bradford 1590 – 1657

Opechancanough lives till 1640 aged 102. Proud native shot in back when captured. Maryland is a proprietory colony. First one given to George Calvert member of Baltimore family. 1632 Absolute governing rights given. First settlers 130 on The Ark and The Dove. Leave Isle of Wight Nov 1633 Mar 1634. Only 16 gentlemen. Artisans, labourers. Ten children permanent settlers. First colonists picked healthy, free from poss attack from natives. St. Mary’s city. 100m North of Jamestown. Was the capital of Maryland until 1694 then was Annapolis after Queen Anne. Baltimore family ambitions.
1) Altruistic want to be religious haven for those of their own faith Caths.
2) Selfishly want v large profitable family estate.

Orig settlers on boats were prots. Great tenuous climax end of 1640s. Settlers win concessional right for political assembly. Condit was The Toleration Act to guaruntee protect of Caths from persecution. Earliest form of free worship, symbolic.

New England Spiritual beginnings recorded here. Ignore cannibals in Virginia. NE puritanism portrayed in absurd clothes funny hats, stereotype. Predom puritan ideals permeate American List.

1990 In over 20 states still reckon criminal offence to commit adultery.

The Plymouth Pilgrims. Most famous, least influential. Were separatists given up on Anglican mother church. Too ‘corrupt’ wanted to worship together in simplest way without outside interference simplicity of devotion.
William Brewster children’s name Patience and Fear daughters, Love, Wrestling of God with the devil. Pilgrims came from Scrooby, Notts began C17th 1603 James VI and I mission to marry out puritans, who emigrate. 1608 some move to Holland, Amsterdam, Leyden then contemplate move to America.
Why? By 1620 had become disillusioned worldlyness and materialism and secular nature of the Dutch. Also worried that children were losing contact with English tradits and cultures. Also prospect of end of twelve year truce Holland and Spain 1609 to 1621. Puritans fear reintroduction of Spanish Inquisition.

Tried to get a charter from the king, who would not interfere if they went peaceably. Received a right to settle area of Washington DC. Bought a ship called ‘Speedwell’. Barely made it to S Hampton. Joined there by the Mayflower. Sept 1620 left Plymouth. Abandoned the Speedwell, not seaworthy. 102 people, 35 saints and 65 strangers by Atlantic net gain of one 103 arrive. Sept 1620 Nov. Sighted land too far north of Cape Cod. Saw in accident of navigation a divine measure.

Sail into harbour in Dec 1620, signed the Mayflower Compact. Cornerstone of democracy seen as. Actually all it says that the 41 signatures will abide by the local law. Dec 25 1620 thumbed noses at Pope began to build settlement in an abandoned Indian cornfield. Physically weakened by voyage. Inadequate nourishment,soon find survival questionable. By end of winter 44 died. Four out of eighteen wives survived.

1621 befriended by local native Americans. Sanvoset Indian spoke English. Introduced friend Squanto. Taught Americans to hunt and fish. Spring 1621 Mayflower returns to England. Not one survivor went back to England Courage. During summer colony prospered. Celebrated w thanksgiving feast 4th Thursday in Nov, elaborate went on for three days. Local Indians there, Chief Massasoit and ninety warriors.

Tutorial The Crucible Arthur Miller become a character in the play. Rebecca nurse, identity. Why I’m doing what I’m doing. What it says about society.

Godly Communities, Challenge

The New England Alternative Francis Brewer, The Puritan Experiment.
Pilgrims Wiliam Bradford 1590 – 1651
Non separating congregationalists John Winthrop 1599 – 1649.
Arbella Model of Christian Charity pg 346 most famous sermon.
Miller The N.E. Mind
E.S Morgan The Puritan Dilemma.
Pilgrims only one hundred, few in number succeeded hardship. Legends founded upon. Governor William Bradford inspiring leader. Dealt w personal tragedy. His wife had jumped fallen from boat and drowned. Suicide was a mortal sin to puritans brief entry in diary tough. Readiness to endure suffering. Praise is deserved. William Brewster’s direct descendant wrote book she owned a brothel. However, luck due to friendly natives.
1617 An epidemic swept N.E. area and had devastated American pop esp around Plymouth therefore native Americans who survived believed this calamity had been heaped upon by Gods because they had killed two white fishermen 1616 visitation. In 1620 believed the white people had been sent out as a test from their god v unlike early Virginia. Pilgrims had been separatists.
Masachusetts still Anglican but wanted to purify it, non separatists. Move autonomy given to local congregation. Sought the ‘true way’. Set up the ‘True church’. Model for Reformation of Cof E at home and rest of Christian world to follow grandiose designs. East Anglia Puritanism strongest numerically and leadership led by John Winthrop 1588 – 1649 Gentry family in Suffolk connected to Puritanism because a crusader. Econ diffs. Sold estate to get ships, had seven sons, one daughter.

Sought glory and ambition, disciplined, sober fanatic. Devotion to Gods Purpose 1630 exped to New England. To him Eng soc the rise of individualism disrupted the unity of the past, saw it not as a retreat but a pilot venture. Role model 11ships, 700 passenger £5 paid each crossing £4 per ton of food. 240 cows, 60 horses. Planned orchestrated migration. 80% from London, Essex, Suffolk, 70% family, 40% female, 25% children. All 0-30, many mid career. 40,000 migrants, NE 20,000 WI 20,000 great puritan migrations.
‘We shall be as a city upon a hill, The eyes of all people are upon us.’ June 12 1630 sailed into Salem Harbor. 17 ships arrived that year. Most arrived in starving condits. Newcomers begin to die, 200 die, 200 return. Winthrop’s twenty two year old son drowns. Nevertheless no regrets. Feb 1631 turning point. Ship arrive, w fresh provisions, lemon juice, scurvy. C19th Puritans seen as champions of political and religious freedom. Early C20th seen as people who were repressed. Bigots. Overly moralistic, narrow minded. Source of modern connotations of ‘puritanical’. Seen as a pervasive cult. Ethic of hard work, thrift and prudent calculation.

New England

Anne Hutchinson 1591 – 1643 Antinonian Inner light
Society of friends, Quakers, Anne Austin, Mary Fisher, Mary Dyer

Religion ii) Cambridge Platform 1648 ii) Half Way Covenant 1662
Education ii) Harvard 1636 ii) School Laws 1642, 47

Rhodes Island, Roger Williams, Mrs Hutchinson become members of the Boston church, first advocate of Womens Rights in the USA. Psychologically abnormal. Menopausal neurosis. Impact on soc overwhelmingly hostile to women in public life. Views all the more unacceptable. Rather a preacher than a hearer. Reversed the tradit role. Mrs H gets support form many w status.

Challenge more serious than R. Williams. Merchants must not charge more than ‘just price’ give her support meetings in Boston Mrs H criticise leadership of colony. Puritan view. Divine truth in the bible. Need a minister to interpret that. She was Antinonian view, Doctrine of the inner Light. Downgrades the ministers. Only two ministers were genuine visible saints. Puritans put her on trial convicted of sedition, sent into exile. Would not tolerate opposition. George Fox founds the Quakers. Urged followers to tremble at the name of the Lord. Worried those in gvmt.

Q preaches absolute Christian passivism. Could not take up arms even in self defence.
Q believe every individual had the light of God no hierarchy of priests, bishs, ministers.
In early years undermined legit of social class and civ authority. Everyone, even women were equal to everyone.
Anne Austin, Mary Fisher, Mary Dyer actions were provocative. Would appear in communities, go to church and walk down aisles naked. 1657 passed an Act the cursed sect. Fine £100 of Quaker who had been banished from colony. Man fine £2 Chop ear off if man returned chop off second ear. Drive red hot poker thro’ tongue of woman first and second whipped but third needle thro tongue.
Oct 1658 legislation if any Q returns to Massachusetts death sentence.

1660 on 21st May Mary Dyer hung as a flat. No easier to prevent views being aired in New World than it was in the Old World. Response religion Cambridge Platforms reinforce old purit values. Half Way Covenant extended even if parents not baptised grandchildren allowed right of baptism.

1636 Harvard established, greatest uni in w civilisation. Massachusetts Assembly sets asisde £400 for college, matches best of £400 dies 1638 as Puritan. Modelled after Cambridge remark achievement. Puritans trying to ensure constant supply of learned ministers. Not new departure or new society. Tradit response Godliness. Good learning hand in hand. Same conservatism seen in school laws.

1642, 47 Primary and Secondary. All heads of house teach children and servants to read and write. 1647 Any community at least fifty families appoint schoolmaster to teach. 100s families also prov school to teach.

Want increase pol and econ self suffic in econ practice
Design to ensure relig and moral welfare of kids

Failure Jeremiad
I Geographical mobility
II Economy

‘Religion begat prosperity and the daughter devoured the mother’ Mathew
III Revival of Colonisation 1660 – 85. Craven, colonies In Transition 1660 – 1713 the Carolinas
Founding, Shaftesbury, Clarendon
The Settlers, the W.T. Connection, Barbados

1640 Law passed in Connecticut any child over sixteen who swore at parents, death, parental control failing. Instill education to assert Puritan beliefs. Prepare children for revelation to Puritan doctrine. Believed the day of doom was approaching unless revert to days of 1630. Depressing sermons, Jeremiad sermons. Jeremiah prophet of doom and gloom.
Why concern over failure? Winthropian conception of city on a hill never reality because of the environment. C17th America near E land of too many opportunities. Distract from ideal of community harmony.

Puritans 1630 ideal of one settlement. Never anticipatd growth beyond this. Pop increase, settlers succumb to attraction of land
1620 – 1 Plymouth community
1640 – 7
1670 – 14
1691 – 21 absorbed into Massachusetts lose independence. Land 120, 160 sq miles. Fragmentation rifts due to competit for land. 1636 People move south to Connecticut.

1638 Found New Hampshire.
1630 Boom mass migration
1640 Bust civil war in England
1650 Boom
1640-60 Process of migration goes into reverse. Civ war, indivudualism Puritans had predicted. Chance to go back and establish the old world.
1650 commercial revival. Emergence of powerful group of Boston merchants. Trade w Europe, W. Indies, Newfoundland. Focus no longer on the meeting house.

Revival of Colonisation 1660 – 85.
1660 End of civil war in England. Restoration of strat monarch Charles II. Lesson pol tension inwards. Focus away by 1660 American yankees north, southerners in Chesapeake, two sects separated by several hundred miles, parish in between.

Proprietary companies post 1660
Future viable colonies
Set up at same time in England, The Navigation System seeks to govern econ relat mother country and colony. Begin of bureaucracy to administer colonies. Lords of Trade and Plantation 1675 then called Board of Trade 1696. Begin of American Empire, Eng gvmt take it seriously for first time.
By the 1670s New York become a royal province. Eng control New Jersey and Delaware. Penn known as the middle colonies. Eng colonisation goes south to Carolina. 1663 eight men, gentry and aristos Earl of Shaftesbury and Clarendon were on committees and councils on commerce navy and colonies. Promoters of other colonial enterprises.

Directors of the Royal African Co 1666. As a group tight knit, influential people. Now had to have close connections w Charles II court. Profile been raised. Barbados settlers of Carolinas colonised in 1627. Sugar plantations worked by African slaves source of wealth. Sugar Econ transform econ, racial and demographicness of island. 1640, 35,000 whites 4 to 5 blacks.
1670, 20,000 whites 40,000 blacks crushed into 166 sq miles of the island.

Sugar monotonous, hard, slow process. Stren labour careful timing. Close supervision. Island subjected to raids by pirates and other euro powers. Tropical storms. Plagues of insects made planters nervous. Deepened by excessive heat and humidity, isolation, claustrophobia. First escape alchohol. C17th notorious ‘been at barbados’ whites in a minority of 2 to1. Intense hatred of slaves 1670 ‘ drowning in a sea of blacks’. Psychology develops surfaces in C18th C19th. High mortality rate, dysentry, yellow fever, leprosy, hook worm. Home brew ale in lead pipes dry belly ache.
Revival of Colonisation

The Carolinas
New York takeover Peter Stuyvesant, ethnic, religious diversity. Charter of liberties and privelages 1683
Pennsylvannia William Penn1644 – 1718 The holy experiment. Charter of privelages.

Maj of Carolinas from Barbados. 1640s yellow fever, Rich town. No time to buy properly. Dumped in local pool, a drinking water source. Shortage of land. Consolidation of land 1645 11,000 farms plantation. 1667 – 750 farms, plantations. Eonomy based onslaves take them to America. Late 1660s importation to Carolina.

New York explored by Hudson 1609 working for Dutch East India Co.
1621 Dutch West India Co set up. Given trading monopoly. Right to estab colony in new world. No settlers till 1626. Buy Manhattan Island from Indians for $24, name it New Amsterdam. New Netherlands colony trade w Indians fur and deer skins.

1660 Restoration Charles II want unity Eng settlements of Chesapeake and New England. Econ reasons four war ships leave Eng may 1664. Anchors in Aug 1664 led by Col Niccols. Sends ashore rowing boat w 6 mercenaries w condits of surrender. Governer was Peter Stuyvesant. Unpopular one legged. Stomps. Tears up terms of surrender. Pieces picked up by other men scrabble then assemble not so fiesty. Anglo Dutch war 1673-4. Ends with the Treaty of Westminster 1674. Colony given permanently to English under jurisdiction of Charles’ brother Duke of York.

NY hetrogeneity melting pot many people countries. Made the colony of NY like late C19th America. Duke of York wanted to maintain full author as proprietor. Tries to levy taxes without peoples consent. Agrees for an assembly to meet Charter of Liberties and privs. Sets presence of resistance to arbitary authrityt. Brief, swept away one year later when king.

Pennsylvania 1681 Wm Penn 600,000 sq miles (6x Britain). Charles II names colony, got rid of two debts. Charles debt £16,000 to Penns father. Admiral Sir Will Penn much to do with restoration political debt. No trouble w nation till C18th.

Penn v idealistic. Wanted it to be a holy experiment. Wanted a ‘colony of heaven’ for the ‘children of light’. Like Winthrop want it to be model for the Christian world. Want soc free of relig and civil strife. Basis of soc and indiv morality, kindness and brotherly love. Philadelphia brotherly home refuge for Quakers, his own faith. Under severe persecution in Engl 15- 60,000 imprisonment. Accept any kind of Christan.

1682 takes off more rapidly than any other. Good promotion.
1690 11,500. 1600 18,000. By end 1683 150 houses already. Challenge supremacy of Boston as leading seaport. Most were Engish, Cheshire, Yorks, Lancashire, Notts.
1665 Penn witnessed Bubonic plague.
1666 Great Fire of London.

Though compounded by layout. Wanted a green county town, first environ friendly city in w civ. Intend to live with Indians, no city walls, fortifications, garrisons of soldiers.

Rebecca Nurse. 76yrs old, oldest family, moral tone, righteous. Always sees truth. Respected figure resented for that. Resilient says little but what says hits home. Family oldest established. Stability now threatened by bickering pop growth. Will III tolerated, not follow eg of Massachusets, not want City on the hill.

A Troubled Community Salem 1692

Pennsylvania Charter of Privelages 1707
Salem 1692 A Troubled Community

John Demos Entertaining Satan 1982
Carol Karlsen The Devil in the Shape of a Woman
Richard Godseer The Devil’s Dominion 1992
Larry Graggs The Salem Witch Crisis 1992

Penn willing for people to have a rep assembly unlike the Duke of York. Want only limited power. Penn 1682 –5. Back to England. 1686 writes letter wants friendly relats. Climax has to concede to severely limit proprietory power. Serves as American Constitut til American revolution. Sets apart Penn Unicameral single bodied chamber, no upper or lower house.

SALEM 1692. Begin winter. Essex. Craze of fortune telling. Small groups mostly girls preoccupied w supernatural. Purpose find out who husbands to be. House of Rev Samuel Parris Rev to 600 people of Salem village a few miles from Salem town. 17m NE of Boston. Included Parris’ nine year old daughter and eleven year old neice became frightened. Bizarre physical reactions, hysterical.

Parris calls in doctor Wm Griggs. Finds nothing wrong physically. Says were in the grip of the ‘evil hand’. Under huge pressure to name names, had been present at meetings. Poss aquainted w voodoo. Sarah Good unpopular because she ‘neglected her children’ smoked pipe, mutterd threats to all. Sarah Osborn, bedridden old woman one year earlier lived with servant for sev months before marrying. Tituba’s confession descript of devil. Take girls round, multiples.
April 1692, 28 people accused.
May another 39.
Those accused women 41- 60yr olds. Some eccentricity or deviant crime behaviour. Theft. Most quarrelous cantankerous. Accusers, 11-20 generation gap. Younger women particularly subject to older women’s control. End May 1692 not one been executed or on trial. At that time Massachusettes had no legal syst.
1684 Charter revoked.
1685 Charles II dies
1686 Dominion of N England. James II.
1689 overthrow of king. Masschusts then overthrow gvmt send people back to Eng to negotiate Charter.

1691 New Charter, new governor arrives in Boston Harbour Sir William Phips.
Appoints Court of Oyer and Terminer to hear and determine. Investigate episode in Salem. Initially select single show case Bridget Bishop. Unpop married three times. Entertained people at late times in the night, drink.
June 10 1692 hung, that summer eighteen others followed.
By Sept 27 been convicted, 100 imprisoned awaiting trial.
C17th total 234
36 execs outside Salem in 1693. 17 finale for panic and witch craft.
Witch cake with urine of afflicted girls to feed to dog. Witches tit growth put there by devil. June 2 committee of nine respectable puritan women. Inspected five women. Reported 3/5 did moring, re examined, claim had disappeared by the afternoon. Puritans believed covenant God and person therefore devil ‘mocked’ sacred covenant between puritan and god.

Sarah Good’s daughter 4yrs old chained. Said life saved if confess to be a witch ‘no more a witch than you are a wizard’. Giles Corey accused, he refuses to plead. You could not be on trial if refused to plea. Used torture pressing lay heavy stones on diaphram over two days. Refused even still to plead guilty not guilty. Summer doubt over type of evidence used to incriminate. Puritan clergy. Rev Increase Mather. Oct 3 1692 sermon Q use of spectral evidence, visions.

Oct 12 Phips forbad any further imprisonment Oct 16 court dissolved.

Morison, Miller, Hansen Witchcraft at Salem.
Paul Boyer, Stephen Nissenbaum Salem Possessed

Q spectoral evidence, dissolution. 1693 Court appointed 49 out of 50 acquitted. Governer issues general pardon 1693. Parris rev till 1696 then resigns as school teacher. Morison sceptical said ‘small incident in time of great superstition’. Explain by bread said rye infected w fungus result convulsive ergotism like LSD reaction but only young girls affected. Hansen cynical to start with then became believer said there was witchcraft.
Boyer and Nissenbaum rational. Look at internal divs, relate account to transit C17th from a godly to commercially orientated society. Putnam causes resentment old and new values. Salem town 1626 taken over by agricultural merchants leading seaport after Boston. Comm econ some drifted to Salem village, factional and ideological divide.

The Peopling of America in C18th.

All historians agree enorm quantative change. Everything bigger, better but disag qualatative change in structure attitude, values, beliefs.
Population growth unprecedented
1710 331,000
1760 1,500,000
Very young pop. C18th even gender ratios but shortage of eligible young women. Pressure on women to get married, even those of easy virtue. Women married at 21, men at 23 or 24. Low infant mortality rate. Large families 8/10 survived 5-8 children, abundant food. Malnutrition of Euro not there. Small sized communities. Great distance bet lessen epidemics.
Immigration 25% pop incre. 1720 many non white non Engl people.
1700 Revolution. 300 – 350,000 non Engl mig. From Germany, Ireland, Scotland two reasons, by C18th reputation esp Prot europeans.

‘the poor mans best country’.

Change attitude of Brit gvmt encouraged offic people from other countries to go.
1733 Georgia 130 arrive
1734 heavy rain, scorching summer, frost. Investment into Georgia. Lies betw S. Carolina richest colony and Florida still under Spanish control. Fear raids on S. Carolina G defensive outpost.
First few years £136,000 90% of cost to set up colony. People behind it trustees headed by Col James Oglethorpe.
1) Prohib slavery,
2) Forbad import of rum, first dry colony
3) Should own no more than 50 acres, utopian scheme not work. By 1740 restricts lift. Slavery ban lifted, ban on run. Av people drank half pint rum every day.

A Population Interior urbanisation Nash The Urban Crucible
B Economic development
2 Introduction of slavery.

Jordan, White over black.
Wood, Black majority,
Fogel, Without consent or contact

Unsuccessful attempts to control Georgia. Failure of enterprise. 1752 – trustees hand colony back to Britain give up on it.
1752 3,450 Trebles 3 x w intro of black slaves.
1763 11,000
1773 33,000

Primitive communities established on the frontier. Place names illustrate. SW Virginia Fucking Creek, Tickle Cunt. The rise of cities urban sea port areas NY city , Philadelphia, Boston, Newport RI, Charleston.
NY 1690 4,000 to 1770 21,000.
Philadelphia 1690 25,000. By rev 7% lived in urban areas, revolutionary movement pioneered in cities. C18th most people 90% earned living on land. 1700 – 20 75% export goods. Growth of comm emerge of wealthy comm cities. Became distinct soc comm. Powerful groups. Rev movement merchants play leading role, boycotts of Brit goods.
Continuing shortage of labour. Freeland easily obtainable. Few accept status of wage labour when land available, therefore expensive labour. Initially import white servants during C17th remained so in C18th in the north. 85% white migrants arrived in colonies before 1770 servants. Black slaves everywhere south of Pennsylvania, Maryland, Georgia.

Aug 1619 John Rolfe who had married Pocahontas tobacco. Said he was ‘sold twenty negars’. Hot humid Virginian Sun. First Rep assembs then slavery. Contradict passion for freedom indulgence of slavery. Va 15,000 300 blacks. Speculation of their status. Servants for limited time like whites or for life?
Prejudice creates slavery? Or chicken and egg theory. Can one legislate prejudice away or do we have inbuilt resentment prej. By 1640s some Afro Americans serve for life, children inherit obligation. By 1660s slavery achieves formal recognition. S. colonies pass leg ground rules for that ‘peculiar legislation’ prohib marriages white and black. Children made either servants or slaves. Elab legal codes. From 1670s large nos imported. Why that time?

1) Shortage of white servants birth rate in Eng drops, less people recruited, Eng econ picks up not so desp.
2) Mortality rates decline. Only by second half that blacks live long enough to be economically viable.
3) Ca planters arrive just at beginning of slavery.
4) Monopoly of Royal African Co. 1697 Monopoly taken away. Open to competition. Free market supplies go up prices down therefore econ prop. 5) Racial still white pure black evil colours in our soc.
Black African 275,000 on American mainland. Most, 10m go to the Carribean and south America. Sweet tooth of Euro determine pattern. Notorious voyage on middle passage. 12-15% died. White migrat only 3-4%. 40-50% of white crews died no resist to African diseases. Once in America Africans. 1720 25 1/3rd pop colony S of penninsula. 1992 – 12.11%.
N Ca – 25% NYC 15%
Md 30% Newport 14%
Va 40% Boston 8%
S Ca 60% Black

1720s blacks reproduce Chesapeake. S Ca relied on continued imports. Disease rice swamps. Prefer make slaves 2 to 1 female.

Quest for Power Jack P Greene
Origins of American Politics Bailyn

Slavery timing of intro exclusive in southern colonies, otherwise in ports. Reveal diffs in soc atmo Jordan. Tone and rythmn of life diff in isolate NE village, house slave like Tituba. Atmo diff to S. Carolina rice plantation five mile radius ten black slaves for every white settler. Inevitable diff in attit. One obv disadv slaves unlike white servants white prospect of freedom and some land at end of service.

If ran away and recaptured time doubled. Slaves no incentive inalterable condit of servitude. Made to work sheer fear of losing their lives beat. castrate, maim. Manufactured hideous incentive of freedom from pain. Received legislat in south. Virginia 1669 if any master killed slave in course of correction not liable to the law ‘An Act about the casual killing of slaves’. Huge evidence of cruelty. Charles Wesley methodist minister of Eng travel thro. 1730 Carolinas William Byrd 1709 brutalising of
a) slaves b) white southern society.
Moral objection from Quakers Germantown 1688. Most white southerners believe black inferior to white, slavery a beneficial institut. Believ in pro slavery ideaology prob at least as well off if remained in Africa saw as
1) Business Enterprise, no passion
2) school for Africans
3) Recent total institution max security prison concentration camp. Historians argue implicitly unable to change slip of soc. Changes south into a slave society post 1702. Changes institutions religion, law, politics, even architecture.

Early American Politics, three colonies
ROYAL most by c18th under direct control of crown who chooses governor
PROPRIETARY governed by one or more private proprietor. Charter granted by crown. Prop choose governor MD and Penna.
CORPORATE operate under charters granted directly to people who choose governor Ris CONN.

All Cols sim structure of GOV, COUNCIL not Penna and ASSEMBLY.
GOVERNOR Usually an Englishman Scot high soc rank. 80% Brit born and educated. Few native born. Appointed in return for services of favour or connections at court. Reps of tyrannical imposed gvmt. Some gvners were singularly hopeless, Edward Hyde Lord Cornbury eventually succeeded further Earl of Clarendon gave away parcels of land furs
‘Spendthrift, grafter, bigoted oppressor, drunken fool’. Land to Anglicans transvestite. Dressed up as Q Anne of England, had portrait painted but most integrity. Gov held responsib hold perrogative of crown, theoretical power. Theory paramount influ over structure of American politics.

COUNCIL Legislat power consists ten men working 3-7 nominated by Board of Trade. Approv by Privy Council. Govs hampered by not having councillors of own choice. Usually strong connects inter state colonies. 1680 – 76 one sixth claim to have had same grandmother, usual feature.

ASSEMBLY most important branch of gvmt. Greene described the ‘rise of assembly was most sig pol and constit develop of Brit overseas emp before American Revolution’. From late C17th onwards lower houses engage in successful quest for power. Achieve power thro power of the purse governer’s salary pre-eminent poor struggle for political identity. Manifestation of pol gambits of leaders of soc in each colony. Come to insist Assemb in America exact same power and facts as House of Commons comb Brit lethargy and colonial aggressiveness.

Preconditions of Revolution

Countymen Bonwick, The American Rev
Greene, Pole, Blackwell Encyclopedia of the AR.

Political elites, instituts, franchise
Societies development skills size, wealth, militarisation.
Weakness of Brit Power for Seven Years of War.

No consensus to cause of AR, need disting betw

PRECONDITIONS Long term underlying causes go together to create potent explosive condition
PRECIPITANTS Immediate incidental factors which trigger this violence non recurrent personal fortuitous.

Political In all colonies except Georgia emerged local, pol and soc elites. Gvmt soc and econ power confidence inown cap to govren combined w broad public supp. Emerg centres, instituions of authority viable governing instituts a) local b) colony wide assembly lower houses. Crystallised grievances v mother country. Already had alternatives of Brit rule. Wide franchise 90% Ma 80% Va. Reason availabiltiy of land. Most people met 40s freehold requirements. Flexibility allows leaders, followers, voters. Wider training in self gov and politics all in place by 1750 – 60.

Social Development Incr level of occupational specialisation, commerce merchants specilised expts, impts internal. Merchants key role weaponry of boyotting Brit goods. Rise of legal profession. Predate econ. Legislation reuired. By 1760s lawyers connected w great merchant familities kinship and marriage. Recount depend on lawyers to depend on to argue case. 1776 Declaration of Independence. Fifty six signed and twenty five were lawyers. 1787 American Constitution 55 people, 31 lawyers. Univ educated colonials turned out by 1635 Harvard. 1693 William and Mary College. 1701 Yale. Only three instituts available therefore if son of elite family need go to Brit by AR, six others founded. Penna 1740 Princetown NJ 1746, Columbia, NYC 1754, Brown Ris 1764, Rutgers NU 1766, Dartmouth NH 1770. Less need to go to UK therefore lessening contact and therefore affection of values, attitudes of UK Indicative of American high literacy rate by 1750, 80%. 1763 ten newspapers. 1763 – 75 , 43 newspapers during confict w Brit. Have all skills. Transition indep much easier than in other countries. Size and wealth. Pop increase productive land. Extent of settled territory. 1760s wealth potential. Size any bored based movement imposs to suppress. Militarisation more arms and ammunition than ever before and men accustomed to it. Not professional army. Constant conflict v French good experience. Merchants therefore good at running war time econ. Politicians able to finance war time soc. Weakness of Brit power from 1660 bureaucratic syst set up had been inadequate. 1760 no central gov syst for suffic power to deal w America. 1696 Board of Trade. Hist of failure. No supp for attempts to make colonial syst more effective. Parl o supp. Britain suddenly realise econ importance of trade

1700 1770
IMPORTS 20% 36%
EXPORTS 10% 37%

Brit econ dependent on America first attempt tighten control over America. Dunk Earl of Halifax resident of Board of Trade. 1748 office systematically compels client to Brit end of ‘salutory neglect’.

Outbreak of Seven Years War Board of Trade need suspend reforms. Become clear sees Brit has little more control than before. Failure of Halifax Brit two lessons.
1) Any attempt to tighten control not left to advisory agency such as B of T. 2) Most Brit offics convinced only Parl could undertake reconstruct in America. This made likelihood of clash v probable. Delayed by Seven Years war w France.

The Stamp Act Crisis 1765 – 66

PRECONDITIONS SYW Accounts for timing of coming of Amer Rev. SYW First World War. Redrqws map of w world. Began in America, French and Indian war. Episode led to outbreak. 1754, 22yrs old col of Va militia, George Washington working for land Co near Pittsburg, captured. Things escalate Brit and French war goes badly for Brits for eight mths.

Turn point new PM Will Pitt The Elder. 1757 Appoints able young commanders, tide turns, military climax. Battle Plains of Abraham 1759. High emot content commander of French side Montcalm and Brit Wolff both die. Brits win. Fre concede Peace of Paris 1763. Makes Brit empt the mightiest emp ever seen, invincible and impregnable.

Seem humbled twelve years later. Paradox. Stretch from Florida to Canada. Louisiana Spanish to concede loss of Florida. Amer claim they won the war. Mass of half a million. Va 300,000 A sixth fought against French with heightened expectations of their role. Removal of France and Spain of potent release, last benefit of protection from Britain.

Brit debt of £140m and received exagg reports about how wealthy Americans were and how little tax they paid. 1s in America and 26s in UK. Also felt Americans had not contributed enough. Also violated navigation Acts. Openly trade w French. Ingratitude could not go unchecked.
Brit opinion of A militia v low ‘dirties most contemptable cowardly dogs’. Wolff. By 1763 B relat v volatile. As soon as peace of Paris signed Brit head for reform, prob of new vast territory.

PRECIPITANTS need orderly westward settlement and good pol to native Americans. Want make royal offics independent of legislators. Need funds to pay 10,000 troops in N America.
Proclamation of 1763 keep back from Appalachian mts.
Sugar Act 1764 Duty on imported on molasses £45,000 help cost of troops £2-300,000.
The Stamp Act 1765 – 66 Morgans Mar 22 Parl into act by Nov 1765. Easily passed. George Grenville comprehensive measure. Revenue stamps had to be bought and placed on every transaction. All papers license, papers pamphlets even cards and dice, prices varied. 2d to £10. Brit hoped to raise £100,000 pa. though reasonable less than ½ cost of troops. 1) Passage First direct tax. Interfered w every colonist’s life. 2) Resistance popular intimidation of those responsible to distrib stamps. Stamp agents, series of riots. 1765 begin in Boston. All except Georgia agents ostracised burnt, torture. Short term success stamp ags resign. But politically unsuccess. No sympathy random violence dropped in fav for econ boycot. Manufact industs in Brit threatened. Works riots. Emergence of loclised resistance group. Sons of liberty Barre said in Parl. Secret soc, econ elite, merchants. They organise meetings, non importation agreements co- op w each other. Massch and Virg Sons all. B) Political. First offic protest form oldest colony Va May 29th 1765. Patrick Henry ‘Give me liberty or give me death’, had just been elected 29th birthday. Questions parl’s right to tax colonies. Result uproar, clerk forgets to write down in excitement.

Precipitants 2 Resistance to Revolution

Turmoil in assemblies. Sugg nine colonies inter colonial meeting. NYC Oct 1765. New Hampshire refuses, says Brit Parl does have superintending authority regarding trade but cannot tax for revenue.

Declaration of rights and grievances
1765, no taxation without direct representation.
Declatory Act 1766

Brits astonished. Say Americans are represented in Parl. What mean by represntation? Brit virtual rep, an MP not meant look after just constituents, but as a nation as a whole therefore nation therefore colonies empire. Amer notion of direct representation modern. 1766 Repeal of stamp Act. Rockingham. But also stores up trouble for uture. Simultaneous Act in Declaratory Act 1766. Parl right to make laws in colonies in all cases whatsoever. Stamp act raised fundamental issue how much Brit author? Cause both sides take opp point of view. Suspicion rules out placable resolution. After 1766 Americans view every Parl threat to constitut right. Brit see every A resistance as prelude to attempt to independence.

Townshend Acts 1767

Charles Townsend, Chancellor. Raise duties on certain goods into Avery glass lead paint paper and tea. Americans object. Thought won over Stamp Act taxation. Brit gvmt hope to raise £40,000 pa. Used to create independent civil list in USA. Amer boycott Brit goods 1768 – 1770 successful.
Lord North PM 1770 – 82 George III not consistant policies many PMs.
1770 March 5 th Repeals Townsend Duties except the one on tea retained symbolically Parl authority. Jul 1771 Boycott over American victory.

1760 effects

Bailyn ideological origins of the AR. America convinced paranoia ministerial conspiracy aimed against America. Seek to destroy American liberty. Reduce A to a state of slavery. Though also Brits that conspir Massch to overthrow Brit authority, crisis imposs to resolve.
Maier from resist Rev by 1770 because of conflict undermining of A tradit faith and reliance on Brit instituts. Once loss of faith change from resistance to openly revolutionary movement.

1773 Tea Act and Boston Tea Party.

Passed to help out fading fortunees of Great East India Co. Not puitive v America. Allow dispose of 17m lbs of tea in USA favourable terms. Amer saw it as a clever trick to force Amer into paying Townsend duty on tea. If paid that they acknowledged Parl right to tax. Amer merchants alarmed at implied threat of monopoly. Idealogical and economic resistance to Tea act. Tea into 3 ports. NY, Phil and Boston. MY and Ph persuade ships to turn round and go home without docking. Boston fails. Then Boston tea party Dec 1763 night of. Radicals assemble in the Green Dragon Pub 30-60 disguised as Mohawk Indians scrambled on board three tea ships. Threw 332 tea chests worth £9,000 into Boston Harbour. Watched by 8,000 silent Bostonians, half total pop of Bost. Cultural divide 1773 A became coffee drinkers, unpatriotic to drink tea. Brit convin Massch was centre.

1774 Coercive Acts

Close down Boston as a harbour till reclaim damage. Meant to serve as example to other colonies if resist author. Meant drive wedge – Mass and other states as of 1774 now A argue that Parl cannot tax. Am only connection is monarchy openly revolutionary.

1774 Continental Congress

Philadelphia. Familiar tactic of non impartation and non exportation and non consumption of Brit goods. Continental Association to enforce committees of Safety. Rev gvmt progs of military training. Violence inevitable late 1774.

Military flash point Lexington and Concord guage Brit in Amer. Carries out pre emptive strike. Sends six companies of troops 700 Brit soldiers. Go to Lexington Common outside Boston. When arrive lined up are 60-70 America militia men. Surprise. Paul Revere warned them supposedly but was drunk. William Dawes. Gage told to lay down weapons. Exchange of shots, eight Americans dead, ten wounded, no brits died.
May 10 Second Continental Congress formally recommend to take away allegiance to the Brit gvmt. June 11 Declaration of Independence Jefferson in Jul 2 resolut call for indep. Vote 12-0 colonies voted for. NY abstained. Jul fourth document approved. Begin of signing of. Since 1605 had been colonists. W in six to seven generations built soc ready to challenge mightiest empire. Were no longer colonists but these ‘United States of America’.

Tom Paine, Common Sense

Father Quaker corset maker. Tom was craftsman lower middle class, became greatest pol propag of revltn. Wrote 3 classics radicalism. Amer Brit and Fra. For 39yrs obscured then became first citizen of the world

The Rights of Man 1791-2
The Age of Reason 1794-5

Greatest radical pamphlet 1870. 200,000 copies half a million readership. Before had appealed to historic rights. P said these were moral rights back to begin of the life, lib, property. Major breakthrough would have abol monarchy, aristoc etc would have republic. Advoc socio economic ref. OA pensions, child allowances. Every man at age 21 should be given £50 to sustain good start Appeal to working classes, sought mass readership

Deist Manifesto, had been brought up a Quaker abandoned relig no ortho Christ belief. Does believe in God though Old Test immoral. New Test contradictory. Estab church sustain corrupt regimes. A of Reason 17 editions. Sold over one million copies in USA, many enemies made, condemned.

Common Sense

Failure in Brit, succes in America. Most imp contrib on issues of colonialism before Decl of Indep. No great detail not hist of probs just gens issues and attitudes.
Dissenting radical contacts
English towns, excise officer
Philadelphia and Penn

Simple basic princips
Attack on Brit constitut
American Independence young, strong, vigorous
Democratic Republic

Spent life Thetford, Lewes, Dover and Sandwich all corrupt boroughs. Aristo dominance. Dismissed twice by crown. Lincolnshire underpaid open to corruption. Stands up to system. Criticised Eng virtues of America centre of intellectual debate.
Benjamin Rush
David Ritten House
Timothy Matlack
Contract that makes society more important than contract that makes government. Gvmt unfortunate necessity should be simple, straightforward. Brit old senile, corrupt.

Large sales, wide readership
Confirming or converting? Original?

D Significance
Style sought mass readership change language of debate, not latinate classical short sentences.
Challenged accepted notions
Confident about new concepts
Contrasts old and new society Adams said been said before.

If CS not written would Dec of Indep been written at all?

Phases of Revolutions

1774 Congress Was the AR a rev in that sense of the term? Up till 1870 Americans all for rev. Hist writings latter part of century feared rev. 1870 – Franco Prussian war end w seige of Paris & commune cause for US to fear rev. Too red.

Jameson argues transform soc. Revolution after WWII & Marxism – unfashionable. Power of Russ. Bourstein said rev not rev at all. Revoked v Brit efforts against. Said evolutionary not revolutionary
1775 Lexington
1776 Declaration
1777 Sarratoga
1778 France
1779 Spain
1780 Netherlands
1781 Yorktown
1782 Shelburne
1783 Peace
1960s radical . RR Palmer 1959 posed AR was rev. US part of worldwide series of revs. Up until then had been connections Fra and A Lafayette and Washington. Palmer likes to maintain ranges. Everest & KII. All affecting. Dictated Euro diplomacy and wars. Marx idea of class struggle. By mid C18th demograph and bourgeois revs.
1746 Culloden ideological rev
1848 Chain of revs communism only spectrum
1870 thoroughly proletarian revs.
1917 strongest comm rev.
America 1st big bang, democratic rev, see in Euro context.
1774 conspiracy ridden, anti cath, anti Scottish xenophobic. Re run of Glor Rev 1689. Americans had so little reading material so saved newspapers. Thought crisis at time of succession of G III still going on. G III to being pro Scots, pro Cath. Ghosts of 1688 Revolution.
1775 Congress much stronger Battle of Lexinton Green led by George Washington. During 75 colonists still protest loylalty to G III, bars and Union Jack.
1776 Delaration of Independence
1777 Sarratoga Britain surrenders
1778 France alliance w America.
1779 Spain ref alliance w Am but allies w France v Britain.
1780 League of Neutrality operate v Brit. In Dec B v annoyed therefore declare war with Neths therefore US finance far greater. Holland only prov in 1782 Shelburne in gvmt after Lord north’s fell coalition then led by Marquis of Rockingham and Ed Burke. Rock dies. Pitt and Chaffham. Shelburne in charge of negos. Diplomacy good but Brit unable to bring US back. Franklin declines offer of Brit to go back. Fra centre of Brit resistance. Fra won but also Brit lost. Fra wanted less strong US. Brit want US strong compared to Brit. 1783 negotiation Peace of Paris but actual peace in 1781.

The Declaration of Independence, diplomatic document. Hoped after such insult that no agreement could be reached. Battle Sarratoga gives more than D of I does. Euro powers take no action. French move interested by sep of church and state in Virginia. Active indep by battle Sarratoga. D of I declared an act it was trying to achieve. Not succeed. Two thirds colonist not in fav. D of I tried to convert them. They weren’t either in favour or against. Blacks not in fav of unrestrained white rule. Also Indians. Largest third wished prob would disappear. Another third tried to be convinced. Plugged idea of regicide ‘the king must die’ Cornwell.

The American Rev, was there any? Many fled the country. Loyalist upper crusts flee to Canada and Brit. Overwhelming tear off of upp classes therefore soc rev. US spread of population and settlement.

Strange alliance w Fra in Declaration. Up until then American identity had been of constant struggle v French. Diploma rev into alliance w Fra. Huge sophistication 1782 – 83 many intellectual geniuses. Too much of mutton heads. Self centred econ becomes ideals of the rights of man D of I transforms revolutionaries. Ideas pursuit of happiness. Historical AR conceived in light of past. Americans think diff. Year of independence for them. Yr of creation. Therefore yes there was an American Revolution.
Cities come off badly. Freedom for, not from religion.

Washington held morale, no general like Napoleon. Not victory type, war of manoever. Moved troops N Carolina Virginia at great speed. Build up from failure. Learned from mistakes. Fre arms materials. 1779 Armada build up on coast of Fra. 1780 Gordon riots in London. G III so unpop. Opp to war great, low morale. Success to army but also the sea. Brit def French in W Indies. Fre withdrew, to the West Brit lost war.
Econ John Hancock smuggler. Enforcement fo the Navigation acts.
1765 Stamp Act, Grenville Declaratory Act. 1776 The econ then becomes Eisenstadt Americ History 1971. Insignif till Sarratoga. Hindsight. Reaction immed? Not maj thinking. Ideal enemy for Americans. All wrongs blame GIII. Since 1658 3rd sept. Cromwell Battle Dunbar and Worcester won, Cromwell died. Great terror of military power in USA two years of Generals, ends up terror. Not want recurrence or standing armies reduce to subj of Cromwell. Civil power had be affirmed superior over military.

‘Common Sense was a religious document’

The Articles of Confederation

Richard B.Morris
Carl Becker biog of B. Franklin

1783 Peace
1784 Frankland
1785 Envoys
1786 Shays
1787 Constitution

How much territory should independence embrace? Huge areas of unsettled territory. Who is there. N New Engl. New Hampshire. Maine all v unsettled. Also Vermont disp between NY and New hamp now Alaska Hawaii.

Cooper’s book on the frontier pioneer farmers settlers stages. Matters v chaotic and unplanned by for lecture will segregate. Land ownership disputed white civ never has escaped from the twist of ownership.

1783 Frankland 1784 – 1788 Now called Franklin. Silver exploitation. Pattern of frontier people more hostile to Indians than local gvmt. Gvnr Berkely long dead but sim patt. Indians in Franklin far more civ than they. Not nomads settled, Franklin unwanted. Fluidity of the state that never was metaphor for country that would never exist. Am had no name tried to call it Columbia.
1785 Ministers Adams and Jefferson received in London and Paris. Appointed credentials to Louis XVI and G III as ministers. Formidable figs in hist. Adams only friend was G III. Insult to Brit his presence.

1786 Shays most succ rebellion. Veterans of the war. Washington had retired left army when war over unusual. Congress confirm superior over army. Fear of recurrence of Cromwell 1658 – 60 Wash’s abdication was subj of admiration. Country at mercy and he left, only army annoyed. Mutiny of ex soldiers 1786 – 87. Mostly w Massch. Contrast of wealth Boston shifting of elite?

1787 Constitution under John Dickinson. Lawyer published affirm resist of Brit military 1767 Less in fav of independence. Given the articles of confederation to draw up.
Thirteen states expressed willing to be indep uncertain of fourteenth colony, Nova Scotia that never arrived. Thought themselves thirteen sovereign states. Union strengthened by war and constit, central gvmt limited, not want central authority. London passing and enforcing acts. Government best which governs least. Articles not ratified till two mths bef Cornwallace resigned. Jan 1781. Little testing. Q at time Franklin, Jefferson Adams 1781 not able to recog names. Down to the J team, busy A team. Presidents of Congress no one knew. Suff from low morale. States tried vote one from the other
‘Told could not live therefore died’.
Result coup, and what did continental cong do? Thank Washington for superceding them! Pitt really capable, Brit more powerful, Brit might have counter attack, largest incentive to America.
Constitutional Agenda
Diplomatic Agenda
Social Agenda
Spatial Agenda. Anxious for war to be over, need strong gvmt.

1789 Inaugural
1790 Credit
1791 Bank
1792 Election
1793 Neutrality
1794 Jay
1795 Pinckney
1796 Farewell
Washington Presidency elected,1789 goes to NY. Only few members there 9 out of 22 elect John Langdon. Count otes for office of pres and vice pres. Still continues now. Know v little about Washington reserved, distant authority charisma. Father figure, cherry tree, lie.
The Hamiltonian System. Both groups pre-madonna President and Senate. 1794 Treaty Brit get out of Detroit but at cost of loyalists against revolution, Virginia esp. House Finance, Senate treaties. Wash organiser foundation of civ gvmt on military lines. John C. Millar. President Eva Pres presided P ministerial, royal, variation of roles. Hamiltonian syst notorious anti democratic opp to Jefferson. Gregarous. Jeff, American Virginian. Alex Hamilton born outside USA Great huge land discovered. Jan 1790 Report on public credit.

Funding Foreign domestic debt at Par. Assumption of State Debts compromise on DC.
‘Touched the corpse of public credit and it sprang to life at his feet’
First National Bank of US. Nov 1791 implied powers US Article Ten.
Report on Manufacturers Dec 1791 Tariff for Industry. Bounties for agriculture. Federal aid to internal improvements. Idea of Union Ham. Liberty Jefferson. Affect by Brit royalist v rev France. Supp B tradit links. Jeff supp Fra. Washington Neutrality Proclamation 1795. Genet 1794.

Constitution what not understand?


After 1800 exclusively southern institut huge growth rate
1790 650,000
1810 1,120,000
1860 3,960,000
1808 Congress bans important natural increase. After that, slave trade effectively dies. Pop growth due to high fertility and low mortality.
1789 – 1861 slaves, one third of pop
S. Carolina 57%
Virginia 30%
Maryland 13.5%
Delaware 1.5%
Mississippi 55%
Regional variations most agricultural workers. In lower south cotton upper south tobacco. Unskilled agricultural hands. House servants & factory workers also. Most live in countryside. Only 6% urban. Debates over efficiency corruptability. S econ rich due to slavery. Forget. 1959 Elkins book ‘slavery’. Crippling impact on slaves intellectually emotionally & psychologically therefore emerge Sambos perpetual children. Counter argument strength of families and religion. Eugene Genovese black Marxist historian Role Jordan Roll.
Ulrich B. Phillips ‘American Negro Slavery’ 1918 said owners nearly too kind
Kenneth Stamp ‘the Peculiar Institution 1856
profitability of slaves, psychology of slaves, treatment of slaves
Treatment not equal to paternalism, profit or fear. Paternalism
‘Tendency to treat slaves as permanent children who on the one hand need constant protection, but on the other need constant direction and correction’. Peter Kolchin. Owners constantly talk of paternalism, not deny punishment but say cruel to be kind. Law illegal to murder slave though not strongly enforced.
‘My life long I have been labouring and caring for them and this is their return’ Mrs Mary Jones. 1865 blacks went off to fight in war resentment. After 1808 high price of slaves. $1,000 therefore econ sense not to maltreat ‘it’. Slaves work 14-16 hours day dawn till dusk temp 100 F and humidity therefore overworked and damage health.
1820 – 40 Internal Slave Trade southern obsession. Unscrupulous about family splits. Fear threat of slave rebellion S Cara, slaves maj of pop. 1831 Nat Turner Rebellion. Began as dilligent slave. Then w band of followers three day rampage. Killed over 70 whites electrify opinion paranoia, result in
Good treatment and restraining impulse
Cruelty and repression
After 1831 slaves not allowed to leave plantation. Illegal for them to red or write. Danger of them planning an insurrection. Slavery in 1860 not same as 1800. Change in treatment. Paternalism becomes more important by 1800. Diff betw treatment of slaves by rich slave owners could afford to treat them well and poor slaves who could not.

John Adams and the French Revolution

John Adam’s rotundity. 1736-1826. 4th Jul 50yrs after Decl of Indep. Enthusiastic eager person. Liked Jefferson. Married feminist wife Abigail. Extensive knowledge of English law. Saw right of congress and Indep. Sincere believed in argument. Extensive knowledge of English Ire and Scot law. Never been outside Massachusetts.
Jeff and Adams worried of war w Fra. Hamilton v pro British. Saw previous republics examples. Fearful of success of poss repub. Always had begun in high hopes. Fra Jacobin, reign of terror. Anxiety USA also persue need monarchy. Relat w Jeff strained. Pinkney and Byrd few votes. Constiuion Jeff gets vice pres. Late changes due to amendment in constitut. Adams in office. Bitterness. Adams head of Federalist party. Small man in so far as a party. Any act George Washington hard act to follow.
Hamilton driving force in W Indies. Only American born cits could be pres. Ham and Jeff seen as great opposites. Adams pref Jeff but had to side w Ham. Crisis w Fra. 1797 Adams send mercenaries to Fra Charles Pinkney and Elsive Geory. John Marshall to work out relat w Fra 1778 at end of two yrs truce. Taken Jeyes Treaty seen too pref to British . Ref to see the envoys. Correspondence seen as XYZ. Receive Pinkney as monster if half million paid. Marshall repudiated.

1798 Adams released documents. Republic people told of foreign relations, elsewhere people only servants of crown. Adams estab democratic right. Diplomatic docs publish state documents. Gen outcry against Hamilton out of office led cry for war. Congress mad Washington Commander in General. When GW pres whisky rebellion seventeen led armies to face rebels, but only time pres led armies. Adams not military man. Appoint Wash to lead American troops. Undeclared war raged w Fra for two years. Not much happened. Adams sw Gerry remained Pinkney and Marshall left. G most symp to the rev. Marshall high federalist. G picked up indics that Fra not anxious to have war.

By 1800 under Adams instructs war dropped, minister received Treaty abregated. US followed what Wash said in address no permanent alliances. Adam knew feel for war in US v high. Maj figs in party wanted war. Mac Henry, Pickering served Ham, not him. Dismissed and forced resig. Federalists faced split in face of election over war with Fra. In election Jeff triumphant. Want peace. Jeff and Madison too shrewd to miss opportunity, wanted peace. People who rebelled against Brit. Political dissidence. Jeff and Madd alliance with G Clinton. Team smashed federalists.
Adams left office. Proud of no war w Fra 1800 Taken courage gone into electoral annihilation. Said the country knew Nap going to be under his power would have to led to w Brit. A feared rev undermine US, insecurity over reacted.
Alien and Sedition Acts though rec in crisis. Alien Act nationalisation. Aliens imprisoned. Sedit could imprison editors of newspapers, thirty cases. Bitter hostility. Kentucky 1790 new state repudiate act also Virginia.

1799 Nov Right of Nullification Act of Congress within a state. Burke election blow up. Jeff act North and South party. Party cohesion. Streamlined. Result two candidates victors at loggerheads. Jeff maj of supp but if was a time must go into Congress constituion. Hamilton decides on how election works. Had just destroyed Adams. About to dec between B and J. B rival in NY. It saw B as crook and Jeff as a fool. Pref B. told feds to withold fed votes to let Jeff get maj, narrow 1801 mar for Jeff power. Vice pres Burr now intensely hostile Demo party split. Jeffs first inaugural.

Newly built Washington. Few min houses. White house built in national competition won by, an Irishman called Holbein, Jeff second prize. Like Linster House Dublin where parl meets today. Congress. Chief justice been app by Adams John Marshall of Va hated Jeff. Idea of nat gvmt. Judiciary Act passed and midnight judges power in fed hands so power could not be put in states as Adams and co had believed in so strongly.

Adams disgruntled, rejected, highly statesman like actions. Retired. Twelve years later corresp betw Jeff and him 1812 – 1826 increasing warmth. Adams died aged 90 on 4 Jul 1826 and would not be there at Jeff inaug speech when he said ‘Adams is still alive’

Jeffersonian Ideals and Jeffersonian Rule

1802 Judiciary Huge originality. Found the words of the idea upon which America was based. Brilliant example of the Enlightenment even compared to France and Scotland. Debate over whether he took consolation in blacks slaves etc. After made widower
1803 Louisiana
1804 Week When
1805 Pike
1806 Wilkinson
1807 Embargo
1808 Election
Was against slavery. 1819 like a firebell in the night like gem of a nation upon which US formed. Huge emph on life of the mind. Infl of Scotland. Education brought within reach of any talent. Universiy of Virginia founder of. Setting up univs. Jeffs agrarianism. Purification of agriculture. More republican than democratic. Party democratic republican Party. Burr was demo loose living fig. Clearly developed Dutch aristo. Some loyalists gone. Feds identified rich, anti labour. Justice Slavery and Freedom evolved together, aristorcracy and democracy evolved together. Tammany Hall assoc with demcratic not corruption far worse association. Enlighten and Christian synonomous. Virtue of countryside, city dirty word. Agricultural soc, the manufacturing of cities.

Jeff hostile to that philosophy. Hey Adams ‘Hist of United States during Jeff and Madd’. ‘We are all republicans federalists. Saw election of 1800 as great as 1776 revolution over monarchy.

Marshall disbelieving thought Jeff insincere. Only Burr heard inaugural, could not speak well in public. Estab white house as social centre of US, Washington capital brill personality of Jeff. Expanded power of presidency more than predecessors. 1802 Repeal of Judic Act John Adams’ hurried act.

Landing of US marines glory Tripoli. Jeff long lost entros of Fra. Anti scots remarks too. Suspic of Napoleon who dreamed of a world empire take over Louisiana. Handed by Fra to Spain. Want include Carribean productive centre for sugar and spice. Jeff best way out send envoy. Ill treatment of slaves Toussaint led the Fre revolt. Yellow fever sent to die in mts in euro, see Wordsworth. Napoleon sold Louisiana in posit could not get out of.
Burr killed Hamilton in dual. Burr’s acquittal result of Marshall dec not to hang Burr. Enorm territory and control of it serious Q.

John Marshall and the Supreme Court.

John Marshall 1755 – 1835. On day he died, Liberty bell cracked. Aristo Virginian. Remote. Cousin of Jefferson. Little schooling except from father. Impact made 1778 freezing winter of army deserters, no supplies. Only Washingotn morale kept them. Marshal was W’s sidekick. Army starved while rep sttes squabbled. Marsh nevre forgot. Hist idea need elim fragmentation. Nationalist. Adams love Marsh and law. Marsh limited knowledge of law. Froml knowledge not enhanced by two months at uni. Met and fell in love w wife to be. She soon went insane, he devoted most popular person. Huge character.

Marsh reason for US survival. Nat gvmt at expense of state gvmt. Econ growth. Internat rep for reliability. Implicit at moment Jeff office 1801. Adams passed Judic Act 1801. Repealed by Jeff who reduced sixteen circuit judges to six

Marbury v Madison 1803
Fletcher v Peck Yazoo 1810
Martin v Hunter Lobee

Trustees of Dartmouth v Woodward
McCulloug v Maryland
Cohen v Virginia

Gibbons v Ogden 1824
Ogden v Saunders 1826
Worcester v Georgia 1832
Charles River Br v Warren Bridge 1837

Suspended cities of Supreme Court but fixed annual term. Nowadays, Supreme Court judges all live in luxury. Then all in same lodge. Marsh loved by all. Swayed their opinions. Statesman little knowledge of law but a lot of other assets. Marbury’s hope for fed bastion crumbled. Madison ought have given insignia. Clash w supreme court and presidency. Also partisan role threw Marsh out of office.

Marsh took dilemma. Foundat of Indep 1789 Judic Act valid that he could not appeal. If Mastovy app to law court, it would be upheld. Tech given victory to Madd, should have given insig to Mabury. Was poss for law to be passed by Congress and signed by Pres not to be law.

Bal of power Marsh chose. Snatched a Fed victory where prev inconceivable. Sup court has to be satisfied that it is constitutional. In Brit we have Parl dictatorship. No further Act of Congress declared in constitut till Missouri compromise 1857. Impeachment picking N. Hamp a Fed judge. Announced mad or not guilty of offences? Found guilty as charged.


Washington Irving 1783-1859
James Fenimore Cooper 1789–1851 Last of Mohicans
Henry Wadsworh Longfellow 1801–1882 Haiawatha
William Hickling Prescott 1796-1859
Francis Pankman 1823–1893 The Oregon Trial
George Bancroft 1800-1891
John Lothrop Motley 1814–1877 Escapism
Stephen Crane 1871–1900
Nathanial Hawthorne 1804-1864 Scarlet Letter

Edgar Allan Poe 1809 – 49
Herman Melville 1819 – 91
Walt Whitman 1819 – 92
Mark Twain 1835 – 1910

Ralph Waldo Emerson 1803-82
Harriet Beecher Stone 1811-96
Henry David thoreau 1817 – 62
William Dean Howells 1837 – 1920

Louisa May Alcott 1832 – 88

Bret Harte 1836-1902

Henry James 1843-1916
William James 1842-1910

Leading men literary figs. US was commerce and tariff protect cheap foreign goods. How apply to lit? Am enterprise fostered on pub Brit works. Walter Scott and Dickens. Swindling rapacity of Americans M Chuzzlewitz. Laws discouraged indust of am lit productivity. Obliged to form to Brit rules.
Blacks similarly treated in novels as Dickens treats cockneys. Salvation of soul of primary importance. Childlike most holy. Iriving invented Xmas before Dickens or Albert. Essay, sattire, fiction. Cooper responsib sea romances. Pirate pathfinders repudiated by new settlers. Capitalise on their work. Social rift in East. Scotts doomed highland soc sim to Coopers doomed Indian soc. Admiraion but conviction of destrucion. The needs of the were loosened with dismay. Reality conveye by Cran’s writing on the civil war Little Women.

The Frontier Democracy and Andrew Jackson

1880s Confused national identity. National myth. Declaration, constitution. Fag end of Euro Hist or new? Root was Euro, Brit, English.
Frederick Jackson Turner 1861–1932 his thesis
Vs critics Hacker Carlton. Hayes WP Webb. Pm Sillesiger
Evolution of Democracy
Abolition of property qualifications west east 1816 – 20
Presidential electors by popular choice 1824 – 28
New York Working Mens party 1830 all presidents hitherto had been free masons
Anti Masonic
Spoils System.
Transformed American writings Turner. 1893 onwards Am believed in Turner’s thesis. Democracy was organic. Came not from Euro instituts. From western frontiers. White manood suffrage. Alabama future. Money made from slavery etc. Maine also. 1820. Turner thesis frontier was safety value. No class struggles because pepole went to A throu difficulty. W inferiority complex remoteness want set example. Emph new discoveries of democracies. A believe in success but as Lattimore said frontier consisted of failures, migration form of failure.

Constant boost of west. W balance of power pivot of convlict betw north and south therefore great presidents Jackson and Lincoln.
Turner profoundly environmentally conscious, sea was frontier. Turner thesis characteristically gratifying to A. All come w frontier baggage language. 1890 census said frontier ws closed, all cultivted land. Even now Alaska and Canada is still frontier. T nostalgia factor frontier accuse democ claim of uniqueness .

End of an era safety sections less objections to N v South.

Low tariff
Anti slavery
Cheap land
Expan slavery NE
High tariff
Anti slavery
Dear land
Expansion no slavery
Low tariff slavery
Cheap land
Expan slavery mix SE
No tariff slavery
Dear land
Expan slavery no mix

Principles of electing principles openly anti masonic
Jackson open symbol democracy
in opposition 1824- 28
In government 1829 – 37

Made president national symbol sense of image. Blame bank leadership.
South Carolina nullification, Tariff of abominations 1828, Jackson Clay dinner 1850, Force bill 1832, Bank Veto

Politics of Slavery
1793 Eli Whitney’s cotton gin
1808 Ban on Slave Trade
1819-21 Missouri debate
1822 Denmark Versey Revolt
1828 Abominations
1830 Eaton Legacy
Webster Hayre debate
Jeffersonian dinner
Cherokee nation vs Georgia
1831 Worcester vs Virgina
1832 Force Bill
1833 Compromise Tariff
1836 Republic of Texas
1836-44 Gang Ruld
1837 Murder of Lovejoy
1840 Liberty party
1844 Election
1845 Texas annexed

Problems of Slavery

Profitability and polarisation
Expansion and erosion
Old and new politics

Law and enforcement, separateness of. Piracy in Arab white arian hands. Maine free state. Missouri slave state. Slavery not permitted to exist in Miss, but slav would not exist north of 36 out of 30. Meanwhile had Louisiana purchase. Miss Compromise 1821 – 51

Implics Q (1854) 1857 Supreme Court said Miss act was un constituional even though divided 1854. Denmark Vesey Revolt duration two mths. S Car harden attitudes. 1821 Nat Turner rev two weeks but 100 blacks thirty seven white and executions after. Q of slave had been optional even if war 1860 1m in stu. 5% slave holders. 3,000 large slave holders. Why? Tail wags the dog. Slav prof only to a limited degree. Gulf states highest profit whereas S Car crop erosion. Highly elite soc critic of much more democ soc. Wealth made from small beginnings. Self made men. Futuristic app of S. Car not nostalg of past. Maj black – only white property holders could vote, small elite losing money. Chauvenism.

1825 John Quincey Adams Jackson JQA won Hoffstater book. N Indust cap evolved on v anti human basis. Prefer rural soc. Sim Marx to Calhoon? Def of slave began Calhoon Vice President. Used connexion with press Telegraph to ventilate grievnces. Van Buren more succ than Jackson sec of state. Jackson self righteous supporters to heaven, opponents to hell. 1828 Abomination to discredit press. JQA disgust for tariff so signed it. Turn tariff into pol football. S Carolina faced with issue statement of nullification like 1898 Jeff acts.

Dec 1832 Decl that nullification nonsense. Abom tariff of abom but said S car acted through treason. Shrewdness shown Web v Hague debate.
Gulf states – profit whereas S. Car superior elite. In conflict Gulf states winning but fail to ack the war anyhow. Battle polits 1841-44. Texas consid ging under Brit control. Palmerson 1841 would have been dangerous for Am. But Peel 1841-6 Lord Aberdeen had strong anti slav lobby delayed accept of Texas institu of slavery.

By 1844 annexation of T main issue dominate election. Clay Whig candidate Tyler successor of Va president. Tyler not want Texas to be issue. Jackson returns horrified. Know Polk denotes annex of T with slavery. Clay want postpone Q. Lib Party no votes. Cong not receive petits to outlaw slavery. Lib taken enough votes to throw Clay in north. Calhoon ties annex of T and slav justific to positive good. Resigned vice pres 1832 isolation. 1845 delcare slave on agenda. Prove Am Civ War.

Immigration Before the Civil War

1820 1860 Times
NY 123,000 1,080,330 8
Phil 112,000 565,529 5
Balt 62,700 212,418 4
Boston 43,300 177,840 4
New Orl 27,200 166,675 6
1790 USA 1860

1790 3,929,000
1800 5,306,000 *
1810 7,239,000 *
1820 9,638,000
1830 12,866,000
1840 17,069,000
1850 23,191,000 *
1860 31,443,00 * – over 35%
In eng mostly urban long before America. Long balance of prejudice against cities bad places. Seen in bible as bad. Babylon etc. At least countryside had virtue and purity. City produced Adam Smith poor boy, virtuous if rural Jackson, Lincoln cabin boy. Poor country lad did well. Kennedy, Reagan, Nixon all had bases outside. Even myth continued after most pop urban dwellers, simplicity of childhood.

Immigrants take jobs on canal or railroad networks. City identified w immigrant. Residence of either wealthy or alien. Though no poverty in cities that wasn’t ‘alien’. NY grew due to canal Hudson waterway Buffalo Great Lakes Albany NY port eclipses Philadelphia. Not just urban north and rural south. S wants to expand. New Orleans flocked by Irish and Italians.
When situation is absolutely hopeless people do not move they stay and die. Psychological and medical lost hope. Varying reports on destination Info, rumour, myth.

USA 1819 panic as decade begins and ends with fall in emigraion. Also 1837 – 40 depression. 1857-8 also slump. 1873-77 and 1890’s Europe 1877- 83 also depression. Restraints on pull. Scots Scandinavians and Germans three waves. 1845 – 1885 Old imm and new immigration.

1st wave prot. Cath allegiance to man in Rome Pope want foot on pres mahogany whose allegiance prayed in latin. USA prev always beat Caths Span Armada faced w destitute immigrants. Fever ridden cholera to Bost and NY. Also irish spoke Irish from rural west, not Dublin. Relied on priest. Local. Political sophist org by Daniel O’Connell for emancip of Caths. Estab principle of electing a few reps fo rParl to argue cause. Irish had large idea of politics.
1/4million people entered USA in one year.

Nativism evolved always against something. Caths so visible. Gibbons American person proud of separation of church and state. Cathys try to subvert our institution. 1830 nativism arose. Mad women wrote ‘awful disclosures of’ actually by priests. Pornographs, entertaining, best seller. Virtuous act to read. Foundation for anti Catholic hostitlity to Irish Caths. Fever. Danger of contamination. 1850 nativist ships because of slavery issue. During civ war waring fought so well anti feel decline. Rise again 1890. Rise fall rise. Build on exciting arguments. JFKennedy first Cath descendent pres A nation of immigrants not second class citizens.

Growth of sectionalism, Alexander H. Stevens
Dictionary of American Biography
Patriotic Gore, Edward Wilson

The Spoils of Mexico

James Knox Polk, continentalist a tragedy? USA in ideals & physical fate. Leader suffer from fault wrong decision own destruction, tragedy. USA invaded mexico successfully civil war. Not both congresses of M and USA declared war on each other. War absorbed ‘the dose of arsonic’ poisoned thereafter. USA believed conceived in liberty, USA conviction that they went to war unlike Europeans had not conquering. Said states had plead to be admitted eg Texas. Diff tragedy Polk and the whole state. Polk not poetic or tragic. Nuts and bolts politician b 1795. Age 49 when pres, youngest so far. Young America like 1848 revoluts Young Italy, Ireland, France idea conquest. Polk became obsessive about his work 12-16hrs. Austere about State intervention, states rights. Joyless yet dedicated life, only sought one term. Died 3mths after out of office of exhausion.
Pre Polk 1,788,000 square miles. Polk 1,204,000 square miles added. Mission and Manifest Destiny

John O’Sullivan Henry Clay
John Quincy Adams Daniel Webster
Andrew Jackson John Tyler
Martin Van Buren John C Calhoun
Thomas Haret Benton John C Femont
James Buchanan Zachary Taylor

Romanticism, escapism desires to fight off depression. Wisdom of Adams treaty 1819. Trappes, timber merchants extends settlement. Pressure for Oregon trail settlement. Anglophobia insecurity of themselves. 1812 flares up then later. Every year every township celebrated 4th July. Celeb awfulness of Britain believed that and the opposite of greatness. Felt had to seize countries so Britain could not have them. Turner argument NW, NE, SW, SE
Tyler in power supp Whigs because of anger against Jackson. Vote member of the confederate Congress therefore flag not fly half mast when died. He wanted annexation of Texas argued Brit threat even though t revolted because of Brit opp to slavery. Why Calhoun not want war w Texas. Mex abolish slavery allow martial integration, more civilised. Calhoun terrified of a racially inter sexualised soc of USA.

Seccession thought of in southern terms but also northern. North felt to keep Miss Comp balance for north for make conquest for free lands. ‘54/40 or fight’. Polk’s election slogan. 1845 crisis incr of war keep balance of slave and free. Want corresp conquest for free. Miss and Maine. Webster sec state and Tyler. Webster Ashburton Treat got high boundary for Maine 1841-3 some expan feel satisfied. No further states till Arkansas bal Mich. 1845 then Florida and Aiwa. Territory to state status. Free and slave. How keep up if huge territories south of line all more pressure. North anxious for war.
NW want NE, SE want SW

Summer Polk offered 49 line, Brit refused, Mexico cooled off. P went back to orig point. Final realise B not want fight. Peel broken party over Repeal of Corn Laws therefore interest no for war. Depression lifted. 54.40 repudiated. NW supp Polk of NW but not SE of SW.
War huddled up event of Taylor shattered Mexico. Won. Whig not vote Polk’s horror of making Taylor a hero. Thom Hart B demo attempt made to make him Lieutenant General. Completely inexperienced. Benton’s relevance son in law Fremont took N California.
Bef war J Buchanan Old Jacksonian said no intention of conquest but it was. Largely unoccupied territory under USA. Arizona and Mexico. Mormons believed in a former white pop living in America Jesus. Indigenously American religion involved polygamy. Peace settlement.
Driven people, bitter opp. All Mexico or half? Divisions, N alienated. Polk tried and left country in bed. Pos JQA Monroe Doctrine No Interference Euro. Expan ended up in greedy war for and of slaves. Purpose of integrity ended. 3) Place Texas, new Mexico, Utah, California.

Precedents To Civil War
The Compromise of 1850

Cause of Civ war – expan of slavery into western territories.
1846 – 50 Mexican Territories.
North South divide over slavery avoid quarrelling over issue
1) Up to the states, not Federal gvmt to decide on slavery.
2) Agreement over w territories.
1803 Louisiana Purchase Missouri Compromise.
1820 south of 36/30 slavery allowed.
1846 America acquires a lot of new territory New Mexico, Utah, California.
Debate of slavery much disputed over new territories.
Northerners slavery immoral.
1845 pol cirisi over annexatio nof Texas independent
1836 from Mexico south want its admittance slave territory
1845 Texas annexed part of USA.
1846 N not want trend to continue with rest of states.
South fear of being marginalised.
15 slave and 15 free states retain balance.

Saying Mexico should be free from slavery. Biforous reaction delight, rage. Proviso then voted down not law but symbol of slavery the Big Issue.
Principle Posits adopted in debate 1846-50
Extension of Missouri Compromise line 36:30 James Polk
‘Popular’ or squatter sovereignty. Territories themselves and not congress to decide whether they should be slave or free advoc by Lewis Cass.
Free soil position exclusion of slavery from all territories advoc by David Wilmot
No restricions on the spread of slavery advoc by John Calhoun S. Carolina

Taylor landslide victory, people hope for decisive solution. Sol evolves to be pro northern. Compromse 1850 admittance of two new states. South want to secede from the union, felt victimised by north, Calhoun supp seccession

Compromise 1850 appease both halves
California admitted as a free state
Both Utah and New Mexico as territories to decide for themselves whether free or slave states
Border dispute between Texas and New Mexico settled in the latter’s favour
Federal gvmt decided to pay off the Texas state debt
The slave trade, but not slavery banned in Washington DC
Passage of a stronger fugitive slave law

Whole syst unfair, commissions to catch slaves. Appeal to the south proposed by Henry Clay. Met unexpected opposition by Taylor pres. Taylor is south slave owner diff posit. Feels slavery could not survive in west anyhow. Believe in strength of the Union. Reluctant to appease jumped up southerners.
Taylor dies. 1850 poisoned? Clay’s chances of getting bill through. Philmore is for compromise. Compromise passed. Omnibus Bill had been too broad. Douglas breaks it up into six pieces of legislation, all six passed by Sept 1850.

Maj of south pop want to secede. Fire eaters passionate, vocal. Sept Nov 1850 many have doubt. Rise of unionist sentiment. Nov ’50 Few states sent delegates to convention at all. Also Georgia and Mississippi want remain in union, conditional unionism threat withdraw.
North enthusiasm to Comp 1850. 1840 Whigs or Demos stable system. National parties rep in both north and south. They link the two. Party syst guarantee south that have rep. Demos rep by south. South pres influences whole party. Whig also sensit to south dominated by north.
1846 – 50 party syst begin collapse over slavery. Wilmot proviso alliance between Demo and N Whig and Demo and S Whig.
Fugitive Slave law becomes biggest dispute Uncle Tom’s Cabin Stowe drama of plight of runaway slave dramatises cruelty of slavery. Design to restore unity.

New England Anti slavery founded by Garrison liberators denunciations. ‘raised view opponents and embarrassed faithful friends’. Clergy, society object congregational minister closed churches to ‘Garrisonism’ therefore not hear anti slavery word. Anarchist. Religion had held N and S together. Beechers plead annoyed colonists if abolitionists host church source of justifying inspiration. Still personal devotion to the cause admired hero.
Pamphlets annoyed. Failure essentially not
‘how we shall abolish slavery, as how shall we best discharge our duty to ourselves’. What is the plan? What is the doctrine of immedatism?
Were ‘gradualists in fact though immediatists in language’. Could not condone gradualism ‘of abolishing slavery by not trying to abolish it’.
Zane rebels doctrine shifted realities of policy and legislation to the wilderness of the bible argument. Slavery as sin, no concl. Weld’s ardent host expanded to 70.

‘The serenity spread over North to convert to immediatism. Mission 1835 Weld teacher did not send. Governers, judges, congressmen poor prospects for printed propag destroyed in their care. Weld shrewd aim at country not cities . The 30s golden age of Congress. Senate clay Webster Calhoun. House J.Q. Adams need petitions alert congress capture the nations ear.

1835 Calhoun saw petits opp to exploit his own ends. Debate resulted greater propaganda value than his defeat. Pinckey gang identify chance to identify abolitionism with constitutional right of petition. ‘slavery or the right of petition’. Atherton gang 1839 had been previous incandations the National.
1835 Jackson Pres Dormo. Whigs raised disorder thro’ abolit petits. The right of petition used to champion the rights of the free as well as the slaves.

Kansas Nebraska, emergence of the Republican Party

Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854
Douglas turns attention to these areas need gvmt. Primary concern need railroad to go thro south, not further north, 1854. Repeals Missouri Compromise. Thereafter up to popular sovereignty. Not ban slavery huge concession to south. Re-open slav Q in Louisiana purchase.
Second Party system 1830-50s but Nebraska made it dead in two years.

Collapse of the northern democrats. Douglas the most unpopular man in USA. Like Pearce 1854 mid term election. 1852 91 seats in N states. 1854 only 25 seats. Before 1854 had been national party sensitive to both north and south.
The demise of the Whigs cease exist after Southern Norhtern party quarrels. Coll 1855 south. 1852Whig Party convention had been quarrels. N not like Fugitive slave law or 1850 Compromise. Who, what party candidate? Filmore southern remain president. Northern want Winifield Scott complete non entity. Worse tension 1852 onwards
The birth of the Republican Party, single issue party complete opp to slav expansion of west. Direct reaction to KN. 1856 ‘A relic of barbarism’. Condemns slavery for first time. Not abolitionist but not want spread of slavery.
Republican Philosophy still racist, not for rights of slaves. Lincoln not believe in black equality want colonization not profressive. Opp to slavery due to
Concept of free labour.
Slave power conspiracy
Believe in free market capitalism. Choice of job. Laissez fiare set up own business opps. What and where competition. Indiv choice to work harder, motivated. Moral syst indiv opp above all else.

‘selfishness and competition as the great duties of man’ George Fitzhugh on free labour. Slave system was based on a protective philosophy which takes care of the weak while it governs them’. Benevolence philosophy Repubs outraged

2. Salve power conspiracy about to subvert democratic process
The gag rule controversy 1836 – 44
The Annexation of Texas 1845
The Fugitive Slave Law 1850
Kansas-Nebraska 1854
Bleeding Kansas 1854-8
Supporters and opponents assemble in Kansas. Committed and determined bloodshed massacre. 1856 Lawrence town killed by pro slav supp. Repub seize opp that pro slave not pacifists. Violence suppress democratic in north. must resist.

The cry of free men was raised, not for the protection of the black man, but for the protection of the liberty of the white’. Frederick Douglas.

1856 Attack in Senate on Charmes Sumner Massch opp to slavery. Critic of south. May 1856 made critical speech. Attack Butler senator from N Carolina. Preston Brookes nephew battered Sumner with a cane, out of politics for three years. Repub saw arrogance of slave owners. Not provide for demotcratic debate. Slave power tried to enslave the north.
1856 election Repub candidate Fremont dominates north 114 Buchanan Demo war south. 174 south say would secede from union if Fremont had been elected.

Dred Scott 1857. Was slave sueing supreme court for freedom. Said during 1840s had lived w master in a free territory. Chief Justice Roger Taney rules he is not entitled to freedom. As Dred is black not entitled to citizenship therefore could not sue in court. 2) Said Miss Comp 1820 was never constitutional, valid therefore Wisconsin was not a free territory. Property for slave for slaveowner to do what he liked and where he liked. Indication spread of slave power.

Election of 1860 and Secession of the South

The Lecompton Constituion 1857 – 8
Harpers Ferry
The election of 1860
Southern Secessionism
The Lower south secedes 1860-1
Northern Reactions
The Middle South secedes

Encourages slavery in Kansas. Send it to Washington. Buchanan says should be admitted as a slave state but opp to this in Congress. Northern Demos protest. Only 10% had voted in the election. 90%vote against Le Compton. 11,300 – 1,788. Creation of huge divide. South defeated for first time, sectional tension growth.
John Brown attack on Harper Ferry. JB abolit fanatic. Oct 1859 seize fed arsenal try to attract runaway slaves to go and invade Virginia. He exectured for treason Explos public opinion. South fear of slave uprising. JB northern hero.
Demo party split 1860. Nth Stephen Douglas S anyone else. John Breckenridge Kantuck VP under Buchanan. Must candidates sectional. Only Douglas leads nat campaign realises it is impossible. Only wins state Missouri. N too soft, S too hard on slavery for popular sovereignty. Lincoln is elected, south upset.
Southern Secession. Some remain for Lincoln who is not an abolitionist. Inaugural speech said would have kept on slavery, Econ interests effected if seccession. Many know little about Lincoln misunderstanding him seen as black abolit. Though south important politically. Lincoln elected against wishes of the south. By 1850 slavery and morality not want encourage slaves to rebel. Closed society at threat racial apocalypse?

Lower South South Carolina Mississippi Florida Georgia Alabama Texas Louisiana All seceeded by Feb 1861. Middle South Virginia Tennesse Arkansas N Carolina, all secede after April 1801 south never do.
Slaves 1860 Slaveowners 1860
LS 47% pop BS 12% families own slaves
MS32% pop MS 25% families own slaves
BS 13% pop BS 37% families own slaves

Middle sates only secede from Lincolns action, not his election. Due to his ref to compromiseon slavery and also willingness to use force to uphold union. Nov – Mar 1861 will soon become president. Will use power to block compromise proposal. Crittendon Resolution sugg Miss Comp 1820 should be restored 36’30. Jan and Feb 1861 some believe possible to prevent civil war but do not pass congress. Fort Summer town belong to fed gvmt. Commander tells Lincoln garrison running out of supplies could he send supplies. Carolina think L declared war on them. He decl war against S Carolina. Says uprising too forceful to put down normally w in judicial process more than.
The Civil War

Naval War.
Eastern Question.

Mc Pherson’s Battle Cry for Freedom
North hope seize Mississippi River split W/E. Decisive mil victories in W Jul 1863 Missippi under control. Gen Grant capture Vicksburg. Destroys south crops & towns led by Sherman. Forces Rob Lee surrender April 1865. Democratic systs emerge. 1861 Confederacy sim to Congress, Senate. Davis elected 1861.

Union War Aims
Want restore Union more than nat pride. Future of democ link ot preserv of union. If S dislike Lincoln election leave anarchy not democ. Gettesburg elect.
Desire to end slavey at first denies anti slav intents. 1861 Crittenden Johnson Resolution. War not fought intent to overthrow slav institut only want preserve union and constitut.
Democratic Party not abolitionists. Many norths believe south will come back soon. Not opp slav. Lincoln’s goal to ensure border states remain loyal Union Miss Kentucky, Wva and MD.
Dec 1861 House refuse endorse Crit John Resolut
Aug 1861 House of rep pass Confiscation Act. Free people’s slaves who supp confed.
1862 Fed gvmt abol slav in Wash DC
Sep 1862 Lincoln’s issue Emancipation Declaration take effect 1863. Not free slaves anywhere other than where fed gvmt has effect at least idea committed.
1964 Thirteenth Amendment rid slavery everywhere.
1865 Ratified. Best way punish south to rid slavery. Also key to military victory. Primary concern union. Why shift from thinking anti slav could destroy union 1861opposite in 1865. Slaves grew food and worked factores. Moral war. All forms of non military resist. 180,000 fought in union army. If Britain gave mil assist south then south would win. Saw if act to freedom against slav threat not real. Lincoln use emanc of slavs to build north morale.
April 1861 North united. Stephen Douglas opposition gives consensus. Over next four years Lincoln more unpop. 1861 both parties agree to war. Then split Copperheads. Some riots Draught Riot 1864 – 100 people killed in protest against Lincoln. Why? Horrified. Demo ‘monstrous, impudent makes those equal to Gods unequal’. Hate of slaves and blacks. Linc does badly in Congressional elect. Close to takeover of Hse of Reps. Mass racism.

Suspens of Habeus Corpus some arrested w out explan. Dictatorial authority. First few yrs union armies do badly. Lincoln blamed disast Commander In Chief. By 1864 summer people convinced he would lose elect. Opponent Gen George McLellan worst Gen in Am hist. Good at morale but ignorant of knowing how to fight. Demos wanted negotiated peace.

Lincoln want fight till uncondit surrender. Autumn 1864 freak incidents ensure Lin elect. Gen Sherman’s victores. Captures Georgia ’64 McLellan provs to be incompetent. Nov’64 Lincoln elected.

Supp for war effort unite behind Jefferson Davis. Opp grows as war progresses. Few people own slaves in Tennesee. Civil war in Tex as in Va some areas opp to Confed Independence. Also opp to Jeff Davis policies after ’63. He acts like a dictator. Centralisation offends idea of states rights.
Opps Joseph Brown, Zebulon Vance
Intro 1862 of Conscription alienates many. If had twenty slaves not have to fight. Rich allowed substitutes war fought by poor for rich.

‘A rich man’s war but a poor man’s fight’.

Raises taxes
Imposes impressments Confed Army could demand all farmer’s chickens and slaves
Econ pols were disastrous
Printing of money massive inflation therefore life inaffordable.
States property. Civil rights by end 1864 most southerners lost will to fight.
1861-3 Confed holds its own against union
1864 Resistance seems to end completely
1865 Confed army surrender. Not complete lost, could have conducted guerrilla war. But south does truly surrender. Only 1867-77 opposite after reconstruction.

The Problem of Reconstruction.

Abraham Lincoln’s Plan 1865-77 Restoration of the Union

Surrender of Confed forces. South states now to be restore, but not immediately. Guilty of treachery.
1) What terms imposed?
2) Who decides what terms?
Began before end of war with Proclamation of Amnesty and reconstruction Dec ’63. Promised total pardon for those who promised future allegiance to the union and accepted abolition of slavery. Moreover, it authorised the creation of new gvmts in these states esp if 10% pop accept condits, they were authorised to create a new gvmt.

Congress Plan The Wade Davis Bill Jul 1864. Only when a maj of the pop of each confed state sworn allegiance to the Union would that state be readmitted to the Union. Moreover new gvmt could only be readmit if abol slav did not include former confed officers.

Andrew Johnson b1808 N Car to poor family. No formal schooling. Tailor hates. 1036 moves w fan to Tennesse. 1830 death politician, Senator in 1867. Vig supp of Lincoln. Military governor, then Vice president to Lincoln. Southerner supp the univ. Why? Hates rich planters who dom econ. Evil fundamentally and is a virulent racist though 1867 mess to Congress ‘have less capacity gvmt than any other people’. Hates both slaves and slaveowners. Believ maj of southerns are good. Want to destroy plantocracy.
Proclamation of Amnesty exempts rich souths with over $20,000. In practice he does not do much harm to them, susceptible for flattery. 1865 Rich planters went to Washingotn for pardons. By 1866 7,000 pardons issued 2,000 pardons per day, lenient thereafter.

Reconstruction Proclamation May 1865
South states to be readmitted as long as their constitu conventions
Ratified Fourteenth Amendment, slavery
Cancelled the old Secession Ordinances
Repudiated the Confed debt
Note no insistence on civil or political rights for the freed slaves.

Radical Reconstruction
Rads who were for full pol and civ rights for blacks. Thaddeus Stevens. Had been an abolitionist . 1868 when dies buried in an integrated cemetery. Not want south admitted till black equality but only a small group. Mod Rap Repubs join Rads.

South 300,000 died not want dishonour them. Ambivalence seen in 1865 do A. Johnson’s concess in half hearted manner. Can old secess ords they declare these were AboIition was never legal even in 1865. S Car and Mississippi do not declare them void merely repeal them. South treat free slaves badly. Ends legal slav but imposes legislat tantamount to contamination of slav.

Constitut convention ’65 The Black Codes limit liberty economically blacks had moved away to cities and elsewhere, slaves left suddenly. Free slaves force blacks back to the plantats. Vagrancy is criminal therefore arrested & forced to work on plantat. Employment also if black worker employed, so are his family, arbitrary arrests. North – immorality of slav South still defied by 1865 still wants slavery .Deadlock between Johnson for and Congress against. 1866 escalates prob.

Conflict over Civil Rights Bill. Freedman Bureau Act. Congress overrules the veto by Johns. Got two thirds majority first time ever in USA. Obstinate Johnson angry.

National Union convention 1866 by John wants only one pol for lenient reconstruct. Nov 1866 Repubs dom elections. N pop disapprove of J’s pols. Increased Jul 1866 Race riot. New Orleans S whites attack blacks. J’s disasterous election prog swing around the circle saying how nice south ac and nasty northerners much more radical.

The Ending of Reconstruction 1868-77

Andrew Johnson Congress.

Rad repubs do well in 1867 election. Angry body. Nov- Mar 67 radicalism increased S states ref to ratify Fourteenth Amendment in Johnson’s advice. Cong want to impeach Johnson Rads Violates Tenure of office Act Mar 1867. Preventing J to sack (rad) members of his cabinet J says act not constitutional. Feb 68 sacks sec of war Edwin Stanton.
Ben Wade Senator from Ohio. Next line to White House not Vice Pres Abolitionist rad Impeachemt fails 1868 two stages.
House of Reps dom by Rad Repubs
Senate must vote by two thirds fails by one vote. J remains till 1869. chastened and frightened by impeach. Then follows more conciliatory approach. Does not stand for re election 1868.
Ulysees Grant believes in Rad Reconstruct. Reconstruction Acts 1867 Radical Military Reconstruction.
Southern States Divided into five military districts
District commanders to supervise formation of new state governments.
New gvmts were to be elected under syst of manhood suffrage, negroes to be enfranchised
Southern states to be readmitted only after they had ratified Fourteenth Amendment.

1868 Cong advances Fifteenth Amendment to the Constitu states people not denied right to vote on basis of ‘race colour or previous servitude. Ratified 1870. Climax of radicalisation process. Continued south defiance in 1865 believe in far more radical measures.
Radical coalitions
Black voters 600 blacks sit in state legistlatures. 1875 Blanche Bruce elected to the US senate
Scalawag southern whites poor 1872 20% of white southerners
Carpet Baggers Northern opportunists. Idealists
Prev planters dominate econ: follow equitable taxation. Expand services & education public. 1877 600,000 black children go to public school. Now blacks allowed to use restaurants, theatres, hotels. Improvement of status political and civ rights. Economically little improvement. 1870. Most blacks have no land. Fed gvmt never redistributed land from planters blacks propose of forty acres plus mule but demand never listended to. Too rad, unskilled, as carpenters, plumbers. Not want to work in gangs for planters. Compromise of Sharecropping can decide when, where, how they work if children and wives work. But ensures they stay poor. 50% produce paid back to land owner. Agricult depression 1873 – 77. Price of cotton falls by 50%. Many fall into debt. Borrow reduced to debt slavery peonage.
Process of redemption. 1869 Rad Repub reply by white conserv dom gvmt in south. Why? Gvmts unstable black voters. Poor whites many scalawags are racist.

After 1870 scalawags leave coalition. Refuse to support rad rep gvmt behaviour of blacks. Many vote for white gvmt replacing radicals. Had used paternalism language Primary concern is their welfare. Wade Hampton skilled politic. Governor of S Carolina persuades 10,000 blacks to vote for him. Violence used to crush rad gvmt. 1860s emerge of Ku Klux Klan. White supremacist org. Intimidates and murders blacks. Too frightened to vote.

1868 Stevens dies mastermind of rad reconstruct robbed of inspiration in movement. Incapacity of N gvmt. N increasingly bored by reconstruct becomes obsessed w making money, unconcerned. Retreat from reconstruct. Also change in repub party. 1860 obsessed with helping black.

1870 other issues reconst is a vote loser. Sumner leading rad republ. Cong pass civ rights act but v watered down. Segregation not ended in schools. Not want alienation. 1875 Pres Grant send troops to Mississippi to protect rad gvmt not giant request. Not intervene. 1875 Ohio election. Fears lose supp there if he lost Mississippi. Think more of north than blacks in south.
Election 1876
Samuel Tilden NY Demo
Rutherford Hayes Ohio Repub
Election hinged on disputed returns from the states of Florida. S Carolina and Louisiana. Deadlock in Congress. Creation of electoral commission Jan 1877. This formulates The Compromise of 1817
Hayes to be declared the winner
Federal troops to be withdrawn from south military reconstruction to come to an end.
Federal government to finance construction of railroads in south.
White racist bully intim and murder blacks want presidential power. Rep Party subordinates rights of blacks of own political success.
Evance Russ Brit could have taken over US states. If south seceded then would have split totally. Second Inaugural Andrew Johnson Impeachment.
Ben Wade not vote or impeachment judge in own cause.

The New South

The concept of the new south described by Henry Woodfin Grady as new economy, had been agrarian. South whites would thereafter control blacks in new econ. Diverse indust south? After 1880
1789 – 1901 South Steel Production x 17
1900 400 cotton mills in south
1900 only 4% in industry. Remains far weaker than north. Cotton. Bef 1860 cotton prosperity in south. After 1860 poverty. After civ war fall in demand for cotton. Price fall by 50% and two groups suffer .
Small white farmers. Yeomanry made comfortable living. Unable to pay for food. Bank loans. Mortgages for farms. Cannot meet debt burdens. Many loe farms banks foreclose. Independent Tenant farmers. 1880 two thirds of white farmers own land. 1920 one third of white farmers own land
Blacks became sharecroppers ensuring them as slaves peonage.
By 1877 Rad Rep gvmts had fallen. Replaced by redeemers. Racist black unable to have place in econ or soc or pol. Had been paternal in view like children play fatherly role.
Redeemers worse extreme. Deterioration of post but R not want humiliate, degrade them not any fear of blacks. Moderation in their policy.
no violence
Not deprive them of all civil rights
Not deprive them of political rights
Often blacks voted R confident blacks would vote for them.
1878-1902 blacks sit in state legislature in S Carolina. Wade Hampton puts 90 blacks in pol posits. 1889 change Radical Racist. Charles Carrol ‘The Negro, a beast’. Blacks not children. Instead are dangerous sexually charged beasts need to be tamed. Sambo image replaced ‘every black man is a rapist’ phrases.
Regression in slavery ban and behaved well under supervision since free men more like beasts than men. Ben Tillmann most famous racist alongside James Vardaman senator from Mississippi.

Impact of Radical Racism.

Disenfranchisement of negroes
Poll Tax
Literacy tests arbitrary ABC to Homer
Grandfather clause
The Institution of the white primary

The Creation of the Jim Crow system ensures no hotel allowed to have blacks. Also extends segregation into all aspects of life transportation but also petty things, Florida’s sep text books.
The Growth of Violence. 1892, 156 cases of lynching. Mobs hanging indivs, had occurred in the wild west. Now overwhelmingly black. Accused of raping harassing white woman defended by most whites. Seen as important and valuable. Rebecca Felton. 1890 – 1920 4,000 blacks lynched. None of the lynchers ever caught or prosecuted. A spectacle of south life newsworthy. 1893 Henry Smith lynched 10,000 watching railroad Cos special trains. Photos, gramaphone of his final cries, could buy his teeth.
Why? Econ depression in south Q of own virility and manhood. Previously could be the breadwinners. Find new says to prove manhood protect women from black rapists. Want status guaruntee rank over b. Federal Gvmt not move in their defence

1883 Supreme court rules that Civ Right Act 1875 is unconstitutional.
Plessy v Ferguson 1896 declare segregation is not illegal ‘separate but equal’.
Williams v Mississippi says poll tax does not violate Fifth Amendment.
Booker T. Washington Atlanta compromise speech. BIack leaders would not try act pol so equality. Not challenge white rule in south. White should allow b to devel econ, educat, leave blacks alone. Bl had best soc dreams. Testament of failure by 1900 more precarious then as was under slavery in 1870.

The New West

Greta plains half million in 1890-1912. 1890 Closing of the frontier in Bureau of the census announcement. No line of no settlement.
1862 Homstead Act
Settlers to get 1600 acres if
Registered a claim
Lived on the land 5yrs.

1860 – 1920 1.4m acres claims awarded

No overland route before 1850s. Controv spark in Kansas Nebraska. 1862 Omaha Kansas, Sacrament California 1896 completion. 1869 – 96 futher four trans pacific railroads built.
1865 3,000 miles rail.
1900 87,000 to west of Mississippi facilitates settlement. Vested interest of railroads west boosters. Agents encourage settlement for survival of their economy.

Economic Opps
Bef 1865 assumption no money made the ‘Great American Desert’. Too dry for farming. Half rainfall of Mississippi. After 1800 beliefs changed. Mining. Gold. 1849 gold, silver, copper rushes. 1849 California gold rush. Quarter of a million leave the E for W. 1859 Nervada Comstock Lode discovered, largest in USA. 1877 silver in Arizona, the tombstone town.
Cattle Industry transformed econ and cuisine. In Texas cattle need transport E. Drive cattle to Kansas thereafter railroad. Cowboys for 20yrs mostly Mexican or black. 1880 industry dies out. Fall in demand for steak, short term boom.
Wheat breadbasket of America. Ingenuity overcome dryness. 1902 Reclamation Act. One million acres irrigated properly. But tough land need 200 acre farms at mercy of climate. 1889 to 90 no rain destroy substant sections.
1860-80 Settlers, Gvmt, native Indian America.
Conflict. Westerners suspicious of native Indian America. Thought immoral and viscious. Roosevelt brought up in w. Still hated Indians. After civ war upsurge of conflict 1867. Fetterman Massacre. Fed forces mass by Indians. Forces gvmt 1887 Peace Commision. Decide Indians have to line in reservations. Most accept, but large proportion don’t. Only end conflct 1890. Violence religious ceremony for Indians. But Whites do hold most of the blame. 1876-77 Battle Little Big Horn. Gold discovered in the black hills. Whites invade to hunt for it. Gvmt intervention protect white settlers instead of protecting native Ams. Gen Custer takes harsh lines. His death followed up by fed attacks. Battle Wounded Knee 1890 unprovoked aggression.

Indian Reform Movement

1881 Helen Hunt Jackson, A Century of Dishonour
1887 Dawes Severalty Act.
Set up boarding schools for young native Americans
Divided tribal reservations into lots of 160 acres each family to get a lot.
Holders of land to acquire citizenship in 25yrs. Not want tribal ownership. Has more devastating impact on culture and community. 1887 common Ownership outlawd. Breakdown of life. Many have no exper cheated, exploited by fraudulent business men. Harmful impact.

Lincoln County War.
Johnson county war. Erastus Beadle dramatised books before 1920 films of wild west life. Buffalo Bill, William Cody. Eighteen mths 4,000 buff killed. Sets up circus, tours America, showman. Popularises wild west image of violence. Anarchic no economic law enforcement.
Tombstone gunfight at OK Corral Arizona 1881
The James Brothers, Missouri 1866-1882. Billy the Kid the best gun in New Mexico. Killed aged 21 having killed 21 people in one. Large ranches try dominate small farmers. Competit of cowboys. Violence J Bros outlaws rob banks and railroads. Attacked two most pop institutes resented most. Popular heroes Jessie James like Robin Hood. However not as much violence as seen to be. Dodge City 1875- 84 only fifteen killed.

Role of Women

1869 Wyoming first territory to give women votes. Few women unsuitable but have good jobs and good education. 1890 Wyoming first state to give the vote to woment. Eight men to one woman. Scarcity value bargaining power opp to make demands, vote encourage them to settle.

America’s Industrial Revolution

1860 America Fourth Indust power in world
1900 America First Indust power
Before civ war econ agricult dom. 1890 shift ag- indust. Leading process expan of railroads. Local, national markets. Rail, steel, coal, snowball.
C19th 1 billion dollar Company over half. Standard Oil John Rockafella 1880. 1890 control 95% oil production in America become trusts. Monopolies dom second.

1865 – 1914 25 million immigrants in America. Provide bulk of indust workforce. 1910 Sruvey. 60% indust workers immigrants. Indust encourages people to go to America. Bef civ war only 5m, a wide range of countries. Before civ war only Brit and Ire. After N Euro, Ger, Scandinavia. 1880 also S and E Europe Italy 4m, Yogoslavia, 4m, Russian Jews two million. Many could not speak Engoish. Look differenct. America multi ethnic. The Great Melting Pot by 1900. Many are young men want make money and go home. Transitory, unsettling process.

1860 – 1900 Urban pop rises by 30m. 2-3 increase. 1920 maj live in cities, not countryside. 1860 no skyscrapers, 4 stories. Then electricity elevators, dramatic scrapers. Glamorous dramatic. Late C19th unpleasant growth too fast for urban services. No lanning. Sewage emptied into streets. Typhoid stench. Baltimore sewage pit in close proximity to drinking water.

75% immigrants live in cities. Disproport % of city pops. Chicago 87% are imms or children of 1880 ethnic ghetto. Little Italy, Ger, Poland dire conditions. Tenements tall skyscrapers badly constructed, lit, sanitised and overcrowded. 1910 NYork 16 people in every flat 2-3 rooms. Philadelphia 120 people in 34 rooms.
1870 2.5 in manufacturing.
1920 12m in manufacturing biggest employer
Farms factories consequences. Seasonal relentless. 1900, 9.5 hrs day six days week. Average factories dark, damp, poorly lit, unhygienic, dangerous machinery. 1880 – 1900 35,000 die every year as result of indust acc half million wounded. 1860 drink while work allowed, factories too dangerous. Difficult to adapt. Bef 1860 most work for themselves farmers and carpenters. Indust issues far away . Bef 1860 worker employer relationship like and trust strikes therefore relatively uncommon. Large corporation more impersonal.

Labour Unrest
1877 Great Railroad Strike. Fed troop used to put down strikes, wages had been cut by 10%. Began w strike when employers use strong arm tactics. Violence in Baltimore, Pittsburgh and Chicago. Hundreds killed
1892 Homestead Strikes. Penn company town owned by Carnegie Steel Corp. 1892 wages cut by 28%. Henry Clay Frick looks out steel workers. Workers attack. Pinkerton detectives used against strikers.
Pullman Strike Chicago. Dispute over wage reductions. Fed troops 14,000 used to breach.
Employers always win over Tus. Why? Phenomena of de skilling. 1860 most skilled therefore valuable workers 1880 unskilled.

National Labour Union. Founded in Baltimore 1866. Membership up to 0.5m collapse by 1872.
Knights of Labou founded 1880 by Terence Powderley. Attempts to unite all workers. Membership peaks 729,000 in 1886 then collapses in 1887.
American Federation of Labour. Founded 1886 by Samuel Gompers. United to skilled workers. Hostile to immigrants. Membership 868,500 in 1900 the basis of AFL C10
Indust Revolution leads to giant growth. 1885 – 1919. GNP up by 700%. $11bill 84 bill dolls year but fruits not shared fairly. Appalling dist. Top 1% owns 51% of American wealth. Bottom 44% also own 1% wealth. Henry Clay Frick $150m in 1900 dies.
Immigrant Family Income 1910 need $900 year. Most substant less 569 live in desp poverty.

Andrew Carnegie. Democracy and the Gospel of Wealth, Black books.
Joseph F Waal Triumphant Democracy
Indust rev compatible w democracy.
Politics of the Gilded Age

Late America lacks decisive pol leadership. Presidents – Rutherford Hayes, Harrison, Cleveland all non entitites. Not particularly popular. V close margins. Only 1% victories. One term presidents. Not that capable, no firm grip on power so do not shape pol
Congress white house gridlock. Fragmentation, no domination. Little separating the two parties. Debate non issues symbolic and emotional not public policy. Issue of civil war harp on how Democrats nearly won civ war. Republicans ‘wave the bloody shirt’.
Patronage not policy.
No belief joined parties for patronage
1870 50,000 civil servants
1900 200,000 civil servants.

Allocated spoils system set up 1830 Andrew Jackson. Repub pres would sack all Democrats and replace w repub. Well paid and cushy so campaign for certain pol party. Theoretically appointed by pres. Practice congressmen use power of patronage. Build up political machines ensure certain people are elected.
Attack 1870 critics ‘Mugawumps’ acc intrinsically corrupt. Poor caliber of people. 1881 James Garfield assassinated shot in Grand Central Station. Disappointed office seeker. 1883 Pendleton Act. Replace spoil w merit syst. Basis of competitive exainatory successful reduces, but only partial (11%).
Influence of Laissez Faire
Gvmt LF Hard workers niche, lazy poor. Esp 1870 social Darwinis. 1859 Natural selection. Applied to political life. Survival of the fittest evolve better type of human. Herbert Spencer pop fig of SD. William Graham Sumner professor believe in LF. If try to help the poor regressionary. Leave them to die out another way. Rich good. Poor bad. Russell Cornwall evil sin.
Pres. Cleveland Demo for LF vetoes Texas Seed Bill suff from natural disaster ‘people should supp gvmt but gvmt should not supp people ‘weakens the sturdiness of our national character’ not want paternal role.
Controlling Business
Large corps monopolistic power.
1887 Interstate commerce Act. Design tackle railroad prob. High prices. Pop demand ICC Interstate commerce commission to regulate prices of railroad.
1890 Sherman Antitrust Act. Illegal to dominate, competition attempt to limit big business power.
Both are only symbolic in practice becomes a watchdog, no power. Law remains dead letter, sops to public opinion. Similar in protecting workers. Most states say illegal for child labour and women only on statute book. Illinois relief, but no inspectors.
Two million children employed in factories but gvmt does interfere by helping business with millions of dollars.
Railroad Land Grant. 130 million acres of land given massive subsidies. The Tariff adv to indust protect form Euro competition of cheaper Euro goods.
Protect from strikes. Federal troops crush strikers. Fear of verge of revolution in 1880s? 1886 Haymarket Affair, anarchic rally in Chicago. Police arrive bomb explodes seven policemen killed. Gvmt determined to crack down on all radicalism. Rich get richer, poor get poorer.
Settlement Houses set up by middle class women see what poor life like in cities famous Hull House founder Jane Adams insp saint. Want to pressurise gvmt. Why? Diff time for MC Am women. Education, yet diff to get jobs, not ladylike. Help then deal w rich and poor gap. Polarised forge some links.
Social Gospel churches conservative 1880 few clergy more sympathy. Fall in church attendance told lazy. Many SGs live in cities familiarity esp famous Washington Gladden. Columbus Ohio. People reassess Christianity split of C and pol. Act responsibly, educate people to realities key to rise of the American.
Socialism And Populism.

Acc to lecturer no org soc party. Only org in 1901 pretty weak only 6% in 1912 Pres elec.

Henry George b 1834 Phila
Journalist in California poor but 1879 published Progress And Poverty.
1879 – 1900 two million copies sold solving the prob of land monopoly. Land increase in value to pop rise like Manhattan. If indiv not responsib for incre in land not entitled to fruits should go to residing community. 1886 George stands as united Labour candidate in NY city mayorality election. Comes second behind Abraham Hewitt surprising as he had no pol backing.
100,000 visitors visited his body in Grand Central Station NY.

Edward Bellamy
Shy man but effective ‘Looking backward’ 1888. Futuristic portrayal of Boston in 2000. Paints picture of socialist state industrial army. No conflict, poverty, tension or crime . Public appeal formation of nationalist movement aim for Bellamy’s goals
Want to restore community and co-operation. Threat to Indust Capitalism.

Populism climax in 1890. Primarily agrarian movement. Late C19th difficult time for farmers. Was huge increase in agricultural goods.
1869 2.5m bales cotton
1914 16m bales cotton.
New techno and improved practices but dramatic price falls.
1860 $1 bushel of corn
1890 6c bushel of corn fall by 100%.
Farmers enjoy far smaller dollars of wealth than industrialist. Also farmers have heavy mortgages, high interest, huge debt burden.
1867 Granger Movement mid west
Complain about plight of farmers. Publicise
Take direct action co-operative farming.
Initial success 1888–250,000 members. Not restricted to econ & educat influ. Has political tendencies gvmt intervention required.
1892 Populus Party. James Weaver nom proposals at the Omaha platform means of providing farmers with cheap loans from the govt therefore enables SUB TREASURY SYSTEM farmers to get better prices, could hold on to crops until prices rose.

ENLARGEMENT OF CURRENCY means of raising prices, and thereby reducing the debt burden on farmers. Specie system fixed sup of gold and silver. During civil war gvmt issued notes
Greenbackers on gvmt credit no link betw gold and money. After civ wa gvmt reverses pol back to the gold standard. Drastic cuts of money supply
Deflation to price fall rise also on interest rates.
1876 Greenback Party one issue party need more printed money. 1878 gets one million votes in congress elec. Fourteen memb elected to congress. After 1880 strength wanes. But populist party after 1880 stress on printed money.

IGNATIUS DONNELY Caesar’s Column 1889. Republican congressman leave R party dislikes conservative policies. Leads populists. Hates threat of big business. Caesar’s column futuristic account corporate fascist state painted. Breed of tramps and millionaires.

HENRY DEMAREST LLOYD Works for financ corresp of the Tribune. Becomes populist. Writes Wealth Against Commonwealth 1894. Savage attack esp on Standard Oil. Bribery violence intimidation used to destroy competitiors. So also destroyed the political framework. Gvmt must own railroads. Corps are too powerful. 1885-6 Railway strike led by Jay Gould. Farm supp sympathetic to plight of worker supp by big business. Populism whites and black collaborate to ensure economic justice unprecedented inter racial corporation.

Colored Farmers National Alliance. James Weaver not as success as expected. Use of fraud by Demo Party. 1892 dominance used to intim and cheat pol rivals. Watson loses seat in Augusta vote exceeds population.
1896 Populus supp Demo William Jennings Brian instead of launching own party. Why? Endorse demo? Loses, populus movement collapses not a political force in south by 1900.

The Progressive movement autobiog
J Blum The Republican Roosevelt.
William Jennings Bryan and The campaign of 1896

Revolutionary date. Bryan 36 youngest man McKinnley campaign centred on small town aspirations. M Methodist B Baptist both conserv figures. Roosevelt vice succeeded 1901 when McKinnley assassinated. Eighteen massive campaigns, neither visionaries. Pragmatists both men but populists were realists. ‘Whiskless ‘peffer’ ‘less corn and more hell’. City – centres of publishing. Populus say attention of politics should be fixed on ISSUES. Tariff on revenue or inner infl? Graduated income tax etc (see notes). However not single issue party. 1896 crisis econ swings.
73-77 Depression
77-83 Europe in crisis.
1886 TU’s American Fed of Labor arise from Knights of Labour more conservative, depression and class confrontation. 1893 business failures . Pres Cleveland decide cause due to silver. Insist on single monetary of gold. Millionaries rescue gvmt. Cleveland v honest but conservative.
Populist thought Demos destroyed by Cleveland. Hoped for gospel of national unity, did not want to be sectional but resentful south and resentful west spoke sectionally.

Depression in the interests of big business 1892 populars go political. Break w ruling demo party. Farmers capture state power. Silver became theology demand, gold evil, silver good. Demos weak in west therefore Demo want ally with pops. In south republican therefore not ally with pop. Frontier revivalism swept by Bryans conquest of the Democrats votes changed. Bryan elected as congressman. Populists caught. Forced to supp Demos. Diffuse and disapp or separate and fail. South have opponents, heated enemies of south.
McKundy Gold
Bryan Silver
The Natoinal Boss McKinnleys Mark Hanna. Mark Hanna loved McKinnley, not a mutual feeling. Hanna employer encourage Roosevelt for strike on workers behalf rep of the have nots even though ws ardent capitalist. Victors over populism Roos now doubt it. Wilson 1912 many aspects brough into package. Insistance of ideals reform and change. Looked unkempt but had been realist programme.

Tutorial Politics and Society

Ignatius Domely Caesar’s column
Edward Bellamy Looking Backward
Henry George Social problems
Henry Defis Lloyd Wealth against Commonwealth
William Dean Howells A traveller from Alturia
Mark Twain A Conncecticut Yankee at King Arthur’s Court
View of America? Wealth built up destroy state trying to assist.

The New Imperialism.

Enthusiasm for Empire after months of civ war unconcerned w foreign pol. Sewards ambits far from public opinion of rexpan. 1890 birth of enthusiasm. Brit Ger and Fra scramble for Africa. Am notice growth of euto empires. Fundamental also change in racial thought superiority over other nats. Socal Darwinsm. Anglo Saxons superior to Latins, Asians etc. Assoc w Josiah Strong 1885. Our Country. Minister relig Need expan for pol. Superiority would ensure growth could not all fit in America. Survival of the fittest. Econ acquisit of emp boost econ. 1890 severe econ depression. Not large enough markets for American goods new mkts by invading other countries. Navy one determinate of national strength Strong trade therefore need protective comm and merchants, navy and therefore emptier. 1890 Am divided. Election 1896 McKinley Bryan. Need a war to unite?

Theodore Roosevelt born into v wealthy NY family Harvard. Pol career 80s 90s culminating in assistant sec to naval dept 1897. Mind of Einstein and body of Schwarznigger wrote books then macho. Emph physical prowess. Dominate foreign pol, sees war as best way to develop characters. Worried Ams will be flabby if no war. 1899 the Strenuous Life. Warn Aims overtaken by living in peace, ‘ignoble peace’ lunatic.

Spanish American War 1898. Not caused by desire for Amem but want limit Span Cuban rebellions due to oppressive regime. Ferociously oppressed by Span concentration camps 100,000 Cubans died. Outrage for cruelty. Ams must interve. McKinley initially reluctant not want idea of war. Criticism of M ‘no more backbone than a chocolate éclair’ Roos said of Mc. 1898 USS Maine sunk. Blew up. Press assumed blown up by Spanish. Growth anti Sp sentiment. Yellow press. William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer competition so publicised cruelty of Spa regime to boost circulation. Need war to boost circulation. 1897 Heartst journalist wrote ‘you provide the stories and I’ll provide the war’. Unremarkable four month war dom by US troops. Lead to emerg of Roosevelt as hero. Assembles Rough Riders Regiment take part in battle San Juan Hill. Roos huge enjoyment hero ends 1898 surrender.1899 Treaty of Paris.

US acquires Puerto Rico and Philippines
Cuba to get independence
Spain to get $20m compensation
Am gone to war on anti imperialist grounds. Ends w Am assuming an empire. 1899 American Anti Imperialist League. 30,000. TU and business leaders unite. Andrew Carnegie believe opp to Am basis self rule, indep and liberty. Subjugation rights. Senate close to ratifying Treaty of Paris divisions. Opp manifest 1900. McKinley-Bryan. Rematch of 1896 election. 1900 Bryan opp to Imperialism Bryan loses. Mandate for Imperialism 1900. 1901 McKinley replaced by Roosevelt. Elected as governor for NY. McK has to elect R as vice-pres so popular. Reluctant McK thinks R is deranged. McK assassinated. Attending Pan-American exped in Buffalo. Initial good recovery from bullets but then gangrene.

The ‘damn cowboy’ as pres of US pursues aggressive for pol. Unafraid to use US might to impose US will. Expands influence, not empire.
Cuban Policy in Treaty of Par-Cuba indep Am not want it to have full indep. Adopt the Platt Amendment. 1906 Limits indep. Forbid sign treaties w other countries. Allow US naval bases. America’s right to intervene if civil disorder. 1906 rebellion so troops restore order and Am control only nominally indep.
Panama want canal for trade and def. 1905, Panama controlled by Columbia. 1903 Am engineer coup. 1904 encourage rebs to gain independence. Violated precepts of internat law illegal action. 1904 Panamanians give right Am to build canal. Proud of facilitation to justify Roosevelt corollary. Monroe Doctrine 1823 Latin Am in Am’s sphere of influence. C19th ignored doctrine, but R revives it. Am has perfect right to intervene civil war and rebellion.
Early C20th key to for pol. Informal intervention rather than empire. Unhappy with ideas of emp. 1934 Cuba given independence. 1946 Phillippines given inependence. Spanish American war signif heralds interventionism not creation of massive empire.

Origins of Progressivism.

Little pol activity late C19th. 1900 onwards change. Tackle probs of indust and immigration. Middle class attitudes changed liberal and receptive to reform. Why shift from conservatism? Settlement House works middle class women see lecture notes. Social gospelers clergy believe gvmt need intervene on poor behalf late C19th but very few listened. Why change in 1900?
Assassination McKinley and emerge of Theo Roosevelt. Also soc and econ changes. Impact of Great Depression of 1890s. 1893 – 97 unemployment one third of work force. 1897 depress changes but lasting impact of middle classes.
Att change towards poverty from social Darwinism. Raises spectre of social division. Indust unrest divs pol divs betw Bryan and McKinnley and growth of violence McKinnely assassination. Many fear violence, unrest and division. Verge of civil war? 1900 fear of long term not immediate consequ of soc divs want unified soc.

Rise of Muck raking
New type of journalism periodicals expose probs, Mc Clure’s poverty, corruption, prostituion, immigration. Educate public on real issues. Two committed reformers, Lincoln Steffens and Upton Sinclair. Magazines half m copies sold monthly. Huge impact on perception of society beforehand unaware of city probs of unemployment and poverty.
Change of class structure.
New middle class in early C20th. Trained educated professionals social workers new profession. Confident and determined for solution to probs.
Aims of progressivism.
Democracy aim to make US more democratic nation. Increase dom by big business corrupting pol syst. Lincoln Steffan.
‘The Shame of the Cities 1902 expose pol corruption. Further investigations Life Insurance, Armstrong Cttee. Pol protection insurance relat corrupt. Pass laws prohibiting corruption.

Initiative a group of people can force the gvmt to hold a referendum on particular issues
Recall a group can force the gvmt to dismiss officials and hold special elections
Direct Primaries people, not party elect leaders
Direct Election of Senators. 1913 Seventeenth Amendment
Enfranchisement of Women white 1890 national American Women Suffrage Assoc. 1920 Nineteenth Amendment.

Wasteful place US Human and natural resources. Rid of coal and forests, and of factory danger. Need efficient expert planning. Faith in experts, Wisconsin Idea Robert La Folette governor great fig of prog refor. Tries to ensure experts have say in gvmt of state. Effic and social justice concerns. Robert hunter ‘Poverty’ 1904 two groups.
Paupers lost will to work resigned to charity small group
Poor most not given up and want to work econ syst so unfair unrealistic Ten million people in this band.

Prob of child labour. Two million U16 in factores of initial unconcern. 1906 John Spargo ‘The Bitter Cry of the Children’. 1st to draw attentio nto scope of prob. V harmful not healthy. Long term future jeopardised no schooling. Damage psychology. Children subordinated to industry. Damage also to Women workers. Physical suffering from working sixteen hour days. Dangerous condits. 1911 Triangle fire in NY. Kill 146 women. Sweatshop moral dangers too prostituion so badly paid. 1910 Reginald Wright Kauffman ‘The House of Bondage’ two measures limit hours worked by women. Thirty nine states dis so by 1917. Minimum wage prevent female exploitation. Social Control fear that immigrants disorderly violent unhygienic and disorderly, not want them to treat soc tranquillity.

Prohibition react to over drinking. Believe in link of crime and alcohol. Ban on alcohol throughout 1919 Eighteenth Amendment America. Big Business Threat. Capable of corruptin syst. Econ threat. High inflation adverse effect on middle class. Blame big bus far bigger dom markets. Expan of gvmt regulation and increase in anti trust prosecution, ban Cos from monopolisation but prev not enforced. More vig attempt for control.Theodore Roosevelt and the Square Deal

Washington Jefferson Lincoln and Roosevelt. B 185 into rich merchant family of NY. Another socialite of the south. Harvard graduate 1880. Wealthy left money by father therefore can afford to be prof politician. Never get serious job confident. Ability for America’s ruling elite. Most self possessed man in America. Progressive conservative an enlightened one. Consist opp radical reform. Dislike of Bryan and the populists. 1896 want violent repression of soc unrest, not unthinking conserv, aware of poverty. 1890s police commissioner in NY walk through streets the whole time. Sees reform wil prevent revolution. Conservatism led to socialism. Want cohesiveness worry over class divs and tensions. Also of materialism. Criticises reform of money from rich to poor. Need higher national ideals.

Roosevelt redefines residency, wants to be central fig ‘bride of every wedding and corpse of every funeral’. Control perception want press follow hiking but not tennis wimps. Prev pres no attention. Roos draw att. 1904 Pres Election Alton Parker bef marginal wins but R wins by 20%. 57/37%. Trevied pop. Publicises himself and progressive reforms ‘a bully pulpit’ makes pres a far more powerful man. During gilded age weak pres little influence over policy. He lobbys congress. Takes power from Cong and enhances power of exective administrative commission answerable to him. As little need for a constituion as a tom cat has for a marriage license.

Roosevelt and Big Business
Anthracite coal Strike 1902. TR intervenes to force the coal operators to accept arbitration TR refers to this as the ‘square deal’. Public demand intervention. Threat of coercion. Bef 1902 fed gvmt always intervened on behalf of capitalists now interests of workers
Antitrust. 1902-4 Prosecution of the northern securities Co 1903 Creation of the Bureau of corporations J.P.Morgan richest most powerful industrialist writes a letter to TR but TR says gvmt superior . should not negotiate, but dictate. Howevr TR still believe big bus v good. But they treat workers well. Only want attack bad trusts.
Meat Inspection Act 1906 . Publication of Upton Sinclair’s ‘The Jungle’ exposing terrible meat condits factories, rats and droppings. People leave poisoned bread. Also people falling into lard pots and dying. Bribery blackmail and coercion used to pass act
Hepburn Act 1906 1887 Interstate Commerce Commission but was weak. Pressure for gvmt power gives ICC power to set railroad rates. Conservative reform.

Roosevelt and the Environment

1902 Newlands Reclamation Act. Initiates a programme of irrigation. Gifford Pinchot–Chief Forester 1898–1910 expan of forestry power. Beforehand no control Effective politician powerful man by 1905.
1905 Creation of the US Forest service object efficiency, not beauty
1901 46m acres
1907 150m acres

1908 TR launches a conservation crusade creates the National Conservative Commission. Utilitarian aesthetic conservation. Struggle between two advocates. Struggle over Hetch Hetchy valley in nat Pk, Calif. Request for HEP station San Fransisco Industrialists. Fight won 1914 by utilitarian conservationists.
1905 not sec importance of women suffrage or blacks. At beginning 1901 symbolic gestures ask B Washington to Whitehouse for dinner.
1906 Brownsville six black soldiers carried out a raid on Brownsville, one inhab shot, TR upset. Disciplinary action dismiss all black troops in area. Racist manner. TR weak towards end of pres. Lame duck presidency. Reduces influence. 1907- 8 Growing split in congressional party a) Stalwarts conservative ops esp Senator Nelson Aldrich and speaker Joseph Cannon. Not conserv enough.

1908 William Howard Taft repub nominee defeats Jennings Bryan Demo. Taft not pass reforms as expected to by Theo Roosevel in fact taken by storm in the party.
Evolution of Progressivism 1909 – 17

William Howard Taft 1909-13
Woodrow Wilson 1913-17

WHT maligned maltreated view. b1857 in Ohio, father and grandfather judges trained as lawyer, became judge after Yale. 1901 Roosevelt ask him to be gov General of Philippines. 1904 promot sec of war. Served v well so well to become next repub nominee. Elected as 27th Pres of US. Like Roo cautious progressive inaugural address.

Sixteenth Amendment most import enable gvmt to levy income tax. More effic syst of taxation. Seventeenth Amendment 1913. Senate directly elected by people. 1912 Children’s Bureau. Responsible to supervise child labour throughout America. Progressive but not popular. Why? Fat man and Roo had been physically impressive. WT over 20stone, quite lazy, lacks Roosevelt’s political skills. Shy man hates electioneering. Repub Party div conservs liberals. Old guards and new. Insurgent libs. Diff for pres to get anything done, indecision, dislikes both groups. Conserv stupid, libs too radical.

The Republican Party 1909-12
Payne Aldrich Tariff Act 1909. This fails to reduce tariff levels signif. Insurgents are furious with Taft. First issue to deal with initial side w libs then change to conserves high tariff.
1909-10 Campaign against ‘Canonism’. Canon conserv old Whig. Powerful speaker of House of Representatives. Libs want his power diminish removed. Taft fails to support the insurgents
Taff’s attempt to purge the insurgents 1910. This fails disastrously. 1911 Repubs challenge WHT for nomination political chaos. Re emerge, Roo from America. Huge heros welcome. 1910 Openly attacks WHT. Why still young 51yrs. Healthy fit and full of ambition. Bored out of the presidency?

Taft and Roosevelt.

Ballinger Pinchot Affair 1910. Gifford Pinchot and Richard Ballinger conflict over conservation. Pinchot acc B of being corrupt, a claim he sold land illegally to rich industs. Takes matter pres then public and Taft sacks him. Tremendous damage to Taft, destroyed Roos greatest achievement and sacked Roos best friend.

Criticises the Courts 1910. Taft accused TR of Napoleonic tendencies sees Roo as dictator demagogue.

Prosecution of US Steel 1911. Taft criticises TR’s decision to allow US steel to take over ‘Tennessee coal and Iron company 1907.

1912 Roo campaign does well but not well enough to win. WHT wins nominee election for rep.

Formation of the Progressive Party. Roo sees corruption as only reason for non re election. Sports stadium in Chicago ‘Confession of Faith’ speech. Strange party people young, enthus and moralistic dom by two diff groups. Social workers and business men.
Jane Addams SW
George Perkins Bus
Richest man in US. Chairman of Internat Harvestor Trust likes Roo because he does not break up large CPs. Emph on regulating, not break up of large Cps. Unity in belief in Roo. 1912 election.

The Rise of Woodrow Wilson academic political scientist. 1910 Gov of N Jersey. 1912 Democratic Party nom less charismatic, more aloof and shy but formidable political talents. Best public speaker, astute judgement. Taft not take part. Straight fight of Roo and Wilson hatred of each other. R think W academic snob. W think R deranged idiot.
Roosevelt’s The New Nationalism
Emphasis on powerful national government
Strong commitment to soc welfare measure.
Emph to accept and regulate big business
Wilson’s The New Freedom
Emphasis on security of equal opportunity
Commitment to the restoration of competition
Less emphasis on social welfare proposals.
Theo Roo shot at speech 1912 goes on for half an hour dealing w assassination had over sixty police, image, not substance.

1912 not recover electorally, heavily defeated.

Wilson’s policies 1913-16
Underwood Tariff Revision 1913
Federal Reserve Act 1913 create fed reserve board
Creation of Fed Trad commission 1914 designed to elim unfair practices. All clap down on powerful agencies and monopolies
Keating Owen Act 1916 bans child labour
Kern McGillicuddy Act 1916 provides a workman compensation scheme for federal employees
Adamson Act 1916 this provides for an eight hour day for railroad workers. Why change of heart? Wants to be re elected.
1916 Wilson Dem v Charles Evans Hughes Rep
Progressive Conservative

Shortly after W election lose progressive, join war 1917 diff pol era so no longer apt.

American Entry Into World War I

Why the switch from non entanglement intervention policy? Late entry to cream of W victory? Heroic generosity to save the world? Leaders were ignorant of world affairs therefore should have left it to Britain. By 1918 US world’s greatest power. Causes of WWI America innocent.
Why end diplomatic isolation?
Was entry in US nat interest?
Was entry on side of allies in US interests?
Why take the allies side?

Progressivism entry? Reform ending in war like Jacksonian dem abolitionism civil war. 1930 New deal fortif to fight fascism WWII. Repub cool approach but have dollars to spend on defence. Demo carried away w ideological ideas for ref route war two armed camps Central Powers and Triple Entente.
Brit, Fra, Russ war Serbia assass of emperor. Prob of neutrality Wilson plead people to be neut but he had sympathy with allies. Strengthened half Brit Canadian descent.

One fifth Ger Austrian background from citizens of Aust Hungarian empire. Many Poles and Czechs hostile to Ger. Irish Americans not symp, want Ire independence But maj symp w allies but Dashunds Ger dogs lynched. Propagandist. Royal Nav cut trans atlantic cable w Ger therefore could not get story to US had to route Sweden S. America US econ. Roy navy blockaded Euro Am trade confirm to allied countries

1914 Minitions expts B and F $ 40m
1916 Munitions expts B and F $ 1,300m
Econ committed to survival and victory of Fand B.
1917 allied borrowed $2,300m. B liquidated assets sell up Latin America. Am becomes a creditor, not debtor nation. Lent $2.3 billion. Am could not afford to lose the war need protect investments. Revisionist historians argue not general sentiment of Am people.
1909 Neutral rights London. International law concerning shipping. Roy navy broke laws confiscate goods of neut counting. Brit black lists of Am firms dealing w Ger. Brit ref sign Treaty of Lon Navy trump card. Pres Wilson protest.

Case v Ger attempt to break blockade submarine warfare 1915. ‘Enemy ships sunk on sight’. Neut ships not sail to ‘avoid unfortunate mistakes’. May 1st Ger sink Am tanker ‘Gulf lights’. Diff to testing B Am ships. May 7 1915 tankard sunk off Irish coast. Passenger aboard human shield. Conjurer abracadabra SINK parrot ‘bloody marvellous’. Public opinion ran high. Gers had given public warning, but it was not believed. Brit propag so convincing. Wilson’s Sec of State Wil Jennings Bryan resigned

May 1916 Ger prom not sink more passenger ships. 1916 Wils campaign electoral pose as a pacifist ‘The President who kept A out of the war’. Then abandon peace join belligerents peace cause left leaderless. Calls for ‘peace w out victory’. Want set up League of nations culminate. G hoped to starve B into submission before Am aid effective Jan 1917 told US would sink merch ships bound for B and Mediterranean. Wilson severs diplom relates when eight Am ships sunk betw Feb 3 – April 1st.

Zimmerman Affair 1846 war. Mexico lost Calif, New Mexico and Arizona. Teleg said if Am went to war invite Mex to war fav outcome would restore territories. No chance to nerv of milit power period revolution.

Heavily coded telegram from Brit Admiralty Room 40 ‘Blinker’ Hall expertise copy of Ger code book leaked interests to Pres Wilson had ben relayed by teleg cable Ger. B intelligence must let Am know w out Ger knowing, arrange burglary. Pub opinion and Wils outraged. Revolut in Russ spring 1917 promising them of democ. By Oct Bolsheviks took over but then, approp for US to join demo county.

April 6 both houses pass to join official debate on am entry. Rape of Belgium by Ger army justif join moral crusade for democracy. By 1920s Revisionist opp opinion. Opp war ethnics Irish America and Ger. Millions of men lost lives for no reason ‘not a war to end all wars’. By 1930 dominate effect gvmt pol.

Harry Banes 1926 ‘Genesis of the World’ said Wilson bias for profiteering.
Charles Beard 1934 ‘The Open Door at home’ needed no war for Am exports, became dom historian.
Gerald P. Nye, econ interp of the constitution.

2 Responses to “American History study notes”

  1. I was pretty pleased to find this page. I want to to thank you for your time for
    this wonderful read!! I definitely loved every little bit of it and i also have you saved to fav to
    check out new stuff on your website.

    • that’s very encouraging thank you so much; they’re my notes from edinburgh university and ive got a book on amazon and kindle called Typo which is a bit bizarre. on twitter @franwords if interested, would be nice to follow you back, fran

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