Medieval & Renaissance study notes
Transformation of the Roman world, the emergence of Europe.
P.Brown The World of Late Antiquity, background and legacy.
Town concept self governing entity product of middle ages.
400 – 100 Early middle ages Roman Empire collapses, replaced by new socs and kingdoms into Eng, Fra, Itlay, Ger. Concept of Europe evolves with languages confused period.
1) Barbarian warrior elite family relationships
2) Judeo Christian spiritual ideals and practices
3) Roman traditions Latin ideology, gvmt, admin.
735 BC began build up colonies. Roman Republic insecure until 14 AD- Emperor Augustus replaces regime with W. Empire constitutional monarchy. Julio Claudian Dynasty since First AD Antonine Dynasty secures and stable ensured no hereditary monarchy therefore chose adopted heir.
E. Gibbon The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.
Marcus Aurelius submitted to filial affection adopted son Commodus as heir incompetent disaster. Barbarian invasions, bubonic plague etc. 3AD Severi curbed rot, but mostly disaster. 235 – 284 most emperors assassinated as usurpers.
284 – 305 Rome Recovers Strong ruler only short civil war.
312 – 337 Constantine I The Great crowned in York. Empire stretch from River Forth to Sahara, from Portugal to Euphrates. Firm autocratic rulers. Monarchical position great ceremony evoke hereditary occupations ranks for life. Unattractive but stabilised. Revolts discouraged as emperor equal to God and divine fig. East Roman Empire lasts till 1453 Fall of Constantinople. Edict fix prices, aristos reinforce privs. Army comitatenses distinct between military and civil gvmt.
To stop local commander assuming to much power fourth century much prosperity great agric estates, then series of military leaders.
378 Battle of Adrianople Valens defeated against Goth Gers Emp killed and bad for prestige.
395 Battle Theodosis Divided Empire amongst sons E populus, rich secure West insecure, attacked by Barbarian
410 Goths sacked Rome.
476 Romulus last emperor and founder of Rome was deposed by a barbarian King
Decline of Empire acceptance of Christianity. J. B Barry says not internal weakeness but external pressure. Did not fall was pushed. Monocausal theories lead pipe theory. Soil, huge great statues still survived, churches.
New spirituality new solidarity of people, the ICON, saints mass produced, tangible.
The Fall of the Roman Empire
Process of succession, aristoc privs short sighted and corrupt. Military defeated in battle. Fought against professional, armed equipped troops. Hard to get recruits depended on foreign mercenaries, federat allies. Some disloyal, esp w large numbers.
Economic weakness low level of technology. Depend on slave labour hard to get Low productivity, little enterprise sense or commerce. Merchants had low status. East wealthier than west.
Local cultures elites own areas not Roman Empire go back to roots Celtic. There had been confidence in Empire happy to pay taxes. Then crisis of confidence 3AD. No secular ideal of Rome Empire
Christianity Not all fell Change gradual only state disintegrate. Language, coinage, culture, roman estates, Law. Was transformation not fall. Christian church also preserved Roman values Romanatus.
CHRISTIAN IDEALS and PROMISES
WEAKNESS OF ROMAN CULTURE lack op popular involvement.
NEW MYSTER RELIGIONS Gnosticism , Mituraism
CHRISTIANITY SUCCESSFUL underground sects in east and cities
CONVERSION OF CONSTANTINE
DIVISIONS IN CHURCH
CHRISTIANITY IMPORTANT IN WEST AFTER ROME’S FALL
CULT OF SAINTS
ROMANATAS and BISHOPS
GREGORY I 590 – 604 RISE OF PAPACY
CULTURAL DOMINANCE OF CHRISTIAN IDEALS.
Church dominate medieval society. Rome based on giant confidence trick. Internally weak. Myth of eternity and universalism of power. But overextended, disturbed socs. Rome fell but many elements of Romanatus remained.
Christianity aid full of Rome. Early soc belief in supernatural. Roman culture popularised. Writerscicero. Rhetoric, speaking, debate, letter writing training givento young scholars. Elitist Secular ideal. Glorificaion of society and public life. Change in 3rd century age of anxiety stem from crisis. Elite interested I neoplatonism. Flight from reality. Glory of afterlife – not everyday life which is incomplete More aesthetic other worldly view. Pantheon Gods religion. Elite found it a joke just a means of control and a joke. Move towards monotheism. Rise of mystery religion. Competing belief like modern day sects.
Dualism battle of good and evil gods gave people sense of belonging and satisfaction. Episcopi bishops, overseers satisfying liturgy. Appeals to both poor and rich. Chrisianity philosophy Greek ideas also divisions. Early Christian fairly radical and other worldly was opposed to the state esp in Africa fundmentalist approach to Eastern view Alexandra Ch could combine best of spiritual and natural worlds. Chs persecuted.
Constantine converted to Chrisianity, 312 wins battle in E. West was still pagan. Why did he? Personal conviction, hedged bets still believed in pagan sun god and only baptised on his deathbed. He founded new capital of Constantinople in east (337) Suspicion of supernatural suspicous of western view. Church councils subsidised radical argue more away from simplicity.
“Athens must not pollute Jerusalem” from 4th 5th Heresy weakness. By 400 Church estab elab syst of bishs & Archbs lik Roman Empire based in similar cities, wore same costume as late Roman secular indivs.
East and West split, east survives Byzantine Empire flourishes has the support of church Emperor is divinely appointed Revolt and sinful Byzantines great self confidence. God given empire.
West suspicion of church Augustine wrote “The City of God” (d439). Church is more important than the Empire. Reduce chruch to subordinate temporary role. Bish v. important fig in w. personnification of Romanatas. Education & religion keeps state at arms length. Despite suspic of Empire, bushs preserve roman values Y institutions in West.
Chy poverty ideal pure life late 3rd century. Egypt. Hermit called Anthony followers. Antagonised by corruption and poverty. People went to desert & became solitary. Movement becomes extreme, people lived on grass grazers. People who wander in circles, gyrovagues. Cult of saints, martyrs seen as holy. Revered as example. Place of death visited something tangible.
The Invaders, Impact and their Society.
Abuse of Christianity decline and fall of Roman Empire. Public money put into church. Gregory The Great authority throughout w. europe. Roman survival. Christian ideals dominate intelligensia. German input – barbarian. Rome – end by barbarians. Now seen as peaceful time. Not so much invasion as migration
VOLKERWANDERUNG not only Gers pressure on Romans Picts, Irish, Slavs, Huns King Attila d 453 But most prominent Gers Barbarian anyone outside the pale of RE. Fashionable cult of Germans in Rome dress, bodyguard etc. In third century large groups Goths, Franks and Almmani, all men, become powerful under military leaders. Threat to Empire in 4th Century Romans resist but then battle Adrianople 378. Rome sacked.
Vandals 406 cross Rhine when frozen over. Sudden upsurge of people into Empire, not vast pop explosion. Huns built up Emp on terror, Gers came to Emp to seek refuge from Huns. Gers settled and sedentary people but society geared towards war and raiding. Larger confederation kings must be successful to prove worth.
Dark ages 5/6th Centuries due to all the upheaval. Vandals belong to ARIAN aspect of Christianity. Father greater than the son in the trinity. Germans are Federati for Romans. Taxes no paid by Gers in return. Then Gers realise own power and rule German pops, but small minority, therefore language remains Latin. By 500 Ger society estab myth free representatives institutions and elected kings. In practice hierarchical aristocratic society warrior class of nobles, strange dual society. Most Roman from old civilian aristocracy Rome Military German aristocs. Germs become quite Romanised but most people heretics are suspicious of them but maintain monopoly of military power and maintain own law. Rome elab territorial legal system sophisticated. Ger each people own tradit, law, custom personal.
Ger retinue comitatus no notion of public authority but personal obligation. Favours return service, early Gers not sophist public systs. Family importance. Property to kindred importance fight together. Legal disputes fight on behalf. Feuds would develop between families and Kings.
Clovis 481- 511
Theoderic 493 – 527.
Clovis ruthless but successful, extend rule of Franks from N. Gaule all over. Anyone with status and ambition becomes a Frank. Gaul becomes France even though maybe not genetically French.
Theoderic not Orthodox arian is a heretic brought up as a hostage in Constantinople. Kept people separate could not inter marry posits of status. Romans tolerated but given no military power. Juggled two balls when he died kingdom falls, both sides discontented.
England Gers were pagan, not Romanised. Tradit Ger soc ‘small scale kings’. Pagan illiterate. Emph family, feud ostentation reward followers gifts entertain until 7th century conversion to Christianity Beowulf.
Assimilation and National Building
Role of women
Merovingian Gaul Military success, ethnic fusion.
Visigothic Spain (507 – 711) Roman soc
Lombard Italy (568 – 744) fatal flaws
Economy deprivation, underdevelopment move to north.
Anglo Saxon England, a boom area
Women used to resolve feuds in marriage. King Rothari d 643 Violence of society. Payment given to try stop feuds errupting. Patriarchal soc. Women in poewr of father or husband. Polygamy concubines of nobles. Women killed for indiscretion. Morgengabe given after wedding night like a pension.
Labour shortage, women valued for that and capacity to bear kids. Skills of spinning etc. Later specialist craftsmen change. Workshops were called Gynacea, women’s place quarters. France is small minority but politically more successful. Gauls become Francs. Gaul preserves Roman institutions 6th Century. Visigoths mix of Goth and Rom law.
Land tax, Roman ceremonial and titles. Theocracy close to church. Fairly monolithic sophist soc. Annointed king first place in Europe symbolises the grace of God.
711 Lombard king killed Visogoths detroyed overnight. Arabs remain for long time. Test of war. Was chronic dymastic instability 531 – 711 – 22 Kings, most assassinated rarely lasted one generation. Rome resent goth power. First antisemitism merchants artisans persecuted for money and useful scapegoats. Jews supp Arabs pointers to end of Visogoth Spain. Italy most Romanised urbanised soon Lombards go native.
Adopt Roman customs 680 become Caths, gives them power. Apparently sophist people falls to great King Charlemagne and Ger rulers barbarians lack legitimacy in Roman eyes. Lombards and Visogoths run soc bureaucracy but no schools. Literacy declined. Difficult to pay tax, no tax collectors. Life expectancy short, infant mortality high.
Breakdown of order, communication therefore instability. Difficulty of economy. Long distance trade broken down of econ Roman syst. Agrarian society. Towns episcopal centred not economic ones. First serious black death 540 – bubonic plague a third people died.
Quantative not qualitative decline accentuated by climatic decline colder, rainier 300- 700 mini ice age. 8th C slight pop stability n warmer s. drier desertification of N Africa. Olive oil culture butter culture. North centre of politic power too. Christianity replace Pantheistic religs. Reverence to nature see spiritual in these. Not spoil and deforest. Christ right given to you by God. God’s bounty to exploit aggressive expansion approach to clearance of land. Ploughs, crops. N. gau, Anglo sax Eng benefit from productivity at expense fo mediterranean.
Decline of Merovingians, Charles the Great
Rise of Carovingians leads up to great years of Charlemagne 800 crowned emperor by pope.
RHC Davis A hist of Medieval Europe from Constantine to St. Louis, Bullough.
Chaos and Recovery The Carolingians and emergence of a new Synthesis.
Roman German Christian SYNTHESIS.
Byzantum turns its back on the west. Leaves an idealogicl vaccuum. And practical power vacuum. Pope left high and dry. Ambitious popes (Gregory the Great) but still loyal subj to Emperor weak. Lombards threat. Pressure put on Pope. Begin of papal state but needs a protectorate. British Isles dynamic period Conversion to Christianity by Romans of local kings.
Sutton Hoo Bede d 735 monk. Newcastle learned writes on music, hist, maths, astronomy ‘An Ecclesiastical’ Hist of the Northumberland people national identity. Condems Beowulf feuds, likes Christian kings help poor. Model of Christian ideas spreads to continent Roman and Celtic tradits aesthetic monasticism.
St. Boniface scholar from SW Exeter abandon being a monk. Martyrdom become missionary goes to Ger Rhineland. Killed in 754 by the Saxons, a super hero martyrs death done in the name of the pope, sold his fingernails, cult of himself grow up strong organised
By 600 the Franks dividing and civil war. Rom state breakdown until rise of local nobs and separatism. Dynasty of Clovis was maintained ‘Les Rois fraineants’ the do nothing kings. NE of Frankish kingdom important base economically. Famiy Carolingians powerful aristo. Ger Luxemboug. Emerge 7thC Descendants of a bishop Arnulf had many children Controlled Austrasia kings were puppets. Built up position Carolingians. Situ on the frontier beneficiary of trade. Military power supp chch personal networks of supp.
Charles Martel 714-741 – grandfather of Charlemagne. Dynamic fig control Frankish kingdom. Extend power to S. France lost in 7C. still not king.
Sub king regulus ruthless nickname The Hammer. Batle Poiters 733 Arab force defeated just raiding party though propaganda value. Defencer of Franks Latin Christianity v infidel Charles d 741. Succeeded by two sons. Pepin 741 –768 ‘The Short’ agressive char warrior is crowned 751 uncultured. Late Merovingian arrested, hair cut, sent to monastery crowned in conjunct w pope. Aliance 751 papacy and Charlemagne Dynasty. Pepin illigitemate needs symbolic holy oil to make him king. Corner stone of Caroling policy papacy and Charles. Charlemagne the great the elder Carloman died brother fortunate death.
Charlemagne larger than life fig warrior Christian Saint 1165 has concubines too. Grand work done by his father and grandfather sucessors just as creative though emph on Charl. Limited achievement crumbled after his reign still remarkable thoug. Greatest campaigns, Saxons till 802, Avars defeat 790, Bretons, Muslims of Spain, Lombards 774, Only one defeat v Roncevalles
Biographies Annal Einhard letters Alcuin Edicts Capitularies
Carolingian West Europe in C8 and C9
By C8 direct impact of Rome had waned W. Euo ruled by Muslims & Germans. Balance of power shifted W and N yet new appreciation of Roman culture apparent during and after Charlemagne. Concoction of Roman, Germanic, Muslim, Greek influences Carolingian civilisation.
This was to be disrupted by C9 and C10 by Scandinavian, Magyar, Muslims who broke Charlemagne’s empire and strenthen posits of local leaders who defended the pop more satisfactorily than the kings. Local gvmt units remained throughout the medieval period.
Pippin and son Charles Martel Hammer extended influence east by introducing chrisianity 716 Charles briefly lost control of Fisia a W. Saxon Benedictine monk Wynfrith undertook a mission there expelled. More success in Ger. Pope GretII named him Boniface formal commiss to convert Gers e of Rhine. Culmination of this and work of Alcuin at Charlemagne’s court result in English missionary tradition in Frankish Empire. Martel put nomarchy resources at his disposal 732 made Archb established monasteries.
However, Martel not tool of Church, used land to finance military build up. Boniface strengthened Frank Rome bonds. Was martyrd at Frisia in old age. Humiliation. Pope annointed Pippin king in 751 Distinction normally for priests divine sanction. Most reign fought the pope’s enemies, the Lombards.
768 Pippin’s realm dined betw Carloman and Charles. Rivalry nearly civil war when Carloman died. Charlemagne 768 71 – 814. Estab patts of gvmt, political relats & culture; dominate Europe for centures and seen as saintly even now. Rewarded nobles, respected local customs fo conquered peoples except Saxons No uniform law Rotund person Primitive man assoc obesity w. prosperity, live well. Had physical qualities of ‘geat Frankish noble. Intellectual pretensions appeal to ch, married 4 times. Outlive all but one son Pippin the Hunchback. Great conqueror fought Muslims of Spain, seized Barcelona 801. More lasting results in N. Already hegemony over Ger east of Rhine, Bavaria. The Avars in S.E. Europe. Siezed enormous treasure. Pagan axons in N. Ger resisted. Campaigns betw 772 & 804. Continually returned to old religion and overthrew authority. In 782 executed 45 in one day. Ruled larger area than any Prince since the Roman emps. Christmas Day 800, Leo III crowned him Emperor and Augustus by Theocratic King.
Generous like Beowulf loved eating hunting no nonsense. Large infantry Technology swords spears. Elite troops VASSI Dominici. Rewarded with land key to success military. Administration strength missi agents inspectors of his domains. Weak officials accounts often illiterate. Aspirations not put into effect. Vast areas Lombards kept personal law. Scabinus appointed help w. judgement. Weak no uniform law, key officials counts 250 ish loyal to Charlemagne and public. In practice feathered own nests, not trained, military things hereditary not like Byzntine Roman tradits.
FISC in danger of being takenover by counts. No large scale admin elte tax revenue. No legal entity personal terms. Uses church Renovatio. Theocratic King and Priests. Treated as Lords annointed. Personal relats respected for valour, nobility developed man management. If loyal nobs had counties always swear OATHS to king, then Emp. Ch given immunities had not been emperor since 476. New probs bitter opp from Byzantines. Pope ordered him about. Too poncy roman clerical 806 divided between three sons Frankish 813 Emperor, but not of the Romans.
Second Wave of Invasions and The Rise of Feudalism
Carolingian renaissance Ch meets scholars from Eng, Ire, Italy, Spain. Promotion of discovery and learning Renovatio. Attempt to egenerate soc, win god’s approval, need to educate clergy in common liturgy and improve standards. An ideal of kingship foundation of schools set up traditions of schools, copy text Carolingian Miniscule. Philosopher John The Scot was an Irishman who knew Greek infrastructure, otherwise we would have lost classical learning forever.
Ch criticised in old age sedentary and dies in 814. Orig plan to divide betw three sons, but ony Louis the Pious 814 – 840. Religious, good warrior, engergetic effectiv. Tried to convert the Danes. Ch had juggled w Rome and Franks but Louis for favours Christianity is problem, ernest though. Wife died, then married beautiful Judith. Trouble he already had three sons. She gave him another ‘Charles the bald’ 824. Rivalry Civil ar 829. Weakens empire, land lost given to supporters. Vikings expoited the difficulties, 840 Louis dies. Compromise with 843 Treaty of Verdun
840 Charles the Bald got w Frankish land
840 – 876 Louis the German got E side
840 – 855 Lothar I got the middle Ger
However, still call themselves Franks later these divisions remain permanent Ger and French kingdoms. Gegraphical nonsense criss-cross w mountains.
Decline of the Empire Charles and Louis still powerful kings own consid land. Ceremonies. Ch the Bald difficulties Vikings Clever manip aristos kept loyal. But kings personality so vital. Need to terrorise and reward aristos. When Charles Bald dies collapse. Louis fough Slavs in East. Able, but diffs when he dies. No adult male heir, rise of feudalism, modern construct. Carols granted land to counts. Became alternative systs of gvmt, realise own power. Pass land to sons. Monarchy power eradicated easy picture. In fact ch the Bald still large control. Cold confiscate as well as grant feifs. C10th breakdown of royal power poor kings.
Invasions of Continent and British Isles C9th
Reasons for fall of Carolingian Empire
Feudalism not a primry factor
Rise of territorial principles in west C10th
New waves of invasio but diff from C5th
Arab pirates from N. Africa
The Age of the Vikings by Peter Sawyer
Alfred 871 – 899 Strong English Monarchy
Unification then weakness
Scotland unification c 843
King and State close alliance therefore strong Carolingian monarchies therefore not truly an empire. West kingdoms resilient. In feudal syst exclude public authority of King. Fra during Ch Bald allied with church for many resources. Succeeded by weak son ‘Ch Simple’ and his son’ Ch Child’. Ch Bald dealt w disorder. Created small duchies county of Flanders, maintains kin’s power, need strong king to manipulate syst.
C9 Arabs, Magyars from E and Vikings from Scandinavia. All opportunistic invasions vulchers where weak rulers. Stronger in Euro Emp than Roman Emp. Pagan, not Christian invasions. Not major long term pol or soc change. Attack Sicily St. Peters 844 set up Frejus (Fra) Trades attack pilgrims. Epidemic of castle building, monasteries sacked, monks slain.
Gradually w powers led by papacy overcome. Defeat of Arabs 915 (n of Naples). Magyars nomadic people, like Huns. Reign of terror by raids 862. Burundy, S Ger, Italy early C10th sack capital but do not remain. Otto I battle Lech 955. Vikings ‘Bad but romantic’ Deranged. Emph trade, fundation of towns. No contemp sources from Viking point of view. W sources bound to be hostile. Monasteries and ch suffered most from raids. Scandinavian people climactic change pop explosion? Unlikel due to fish movement’. Monocausal explanations Germanic peoples prone to war.
Increase in technology sea ships, longer distances shallow up estuaries and wide provs. Already trade w east. Distruption Decline of Frisian trade middle men Force Vikings – violence to obtain what they had peacefully
790 raid monasteries, Iona, Llindisfarne. By 830 40 more attacks in Frankia, Brit Isles. On continent 850’s England. Great effect on remote areas, perhaps discovered America Newfoundland. Colonise Greenland, Iceland, Scandinavia republic in East, Vikings from Sweden occupy coastal towns of Russia, sail down river Constantine’s bank. Exchange slaves for luxuries become rich centuries Kiev, dom local slavonic pops first Russian states. Scandinavians gradually slavicised on foundations of Russians.
By 860s CHBal sets up fortification esp bridges 885 they seige Paris. Overall hit and run pinprick, not lasting force. British Isles, Greates, though mixed impact. Ire pol discounted. Culture of monasteries learning and art ENDS with Vikings. Early C9th Set up Cork, Dublin, Limmerick into coinage stimulus to trade.
England period of Bede, missionaries Boniface. Powerful kings in Northumbria and Mercia Midlands. Ch becomes corrupt. Probs of succession No primogeniture. 706 Civil war. Beneficiary of this Wessex. 865Vikings come back having failed with Ch Bald. Northumbria and Mercia conquered. East coasts settled Yorkshire, NE Anlia. Positive effects instituts had tenure, freedom of peas. Danelaw language similar. Become Christianised by C10th does not fall under domination.
Alfred Great stems tide of Vikings attack. Great warrior Founder of Eng navy sets up forts. Burghs close co-op w church. By 959 – 973 King edgar Wessex dynasty control most of eng. Crowned on Bath estab enemy. Set up admin syst based on shires. The shire reeve sheriff national courts. Law catalyst to Eng unity. King of Scotland, Dalriada conquers the Picts north of the Clyde. Picts had been weakened by Vikings less resilient in St. Andrews than west.
Monasticism Papacy Benedictines, Cluniac Monasticism, Gregorian reform
M. Deansley the Medieval Church
Round Up of European Societies c 1000
Spain mostly Muslim. Ire suffer from Vikings the most. Remain ecclesiastical and backward. Small scale instituts pastoral economy. Scotland of Forth Clyde line united 843. Thereafter Scot kings continue expansion to incorporate Strathclyde and Lothian. Rich agriculture but little in way of economy and towns. Strong kings, islands remain Scandinavian till C15th. Irish, Pictish, Angles, Scandinavians, mixture. C8 and C9 rival kingdoms.
Wessex unites against Vikings, Alfred, English Charlemagne. Carolingian empire not full entirely. Corportion w church. K Edgar advisor Archb of Canterbury- St. Dunstan. C10th England. Strengthen monarchy ideologically and practically, depended on charismatic active King. In 978 Ethel Red ‘No counsel’ was seen to be weak by Scandivs. Country exhausted 1016 to 1035 Danish King Commute able Christian but away fighting therefore leaves a lot of power to local strongmen, earls, strong selfish nobs.
1035 Edward The Confessor 1042 –66 weak, had been brough up in Normandy. Surrounds himself w Normans. Antagonism due to weak kinship. Ger C9th Frankish Empire div into three W Franks Middle Kingdom East Kingdom Ger and middle fought over. Vikings do not attack ger. E Frank success leaders strong on Carolingian model Army kept on toes. Henry I 929-936 Duke of Saxony came from north Ger and calls himself King of the East Franks not Ger.
Integration of Saxons. Able fig Otto I 936 – 973 even more able and successful to defeat Magyars 955. Expands kingdom to w middle kingdom of Aachen subdues aristos, intervenes in Italy but little land outside Saxony, no royal taxation. War leadership is basis to present himself as a Christian King, corp with church. Reichskirche all abbeys belong to him, appoints bishs not hereditary. They provide troops like Charlemagne in C8th.
Berengar toppled after Otto summoned by Pope John XII in Ottonian Renaissance. Salien dynasty less successful but same tradit of conserv. Rule to alliance w church reforms. At first reformers supported by Pope want dedicated men. Rid of papal marriage, lay control whether local lords appoint priests or king appoint bishs 1056 onwards war.
The End of the World, a sign of renewal.
Eschatology Christian. Apocalypticism and millenarianism. The study of final things. Apocalypticism, that which was secret, how the world would end. Millenarianism eutopian strain. Period of Christ’s reign paradise Institut church of N Africa St. Augustine to quell fears of book of Revelations about the apocalypse. Minimise the fear of the impact. St.Aug implied the world would end in God’s own time. Begun w emperors coronation? Instill an institution predictions up to 1000.
Ralph Glaber the year 1000 controversy whether to maximise, minimise social ‘panic’. No C10th church concerned w milleniarianism early thinking. No reg beginning of the year, no uniformity. Ralph G ‘the fearless’ bald wandering monk. Bergundian. Tells of pilgrims, anti-Semitism, peace movement. Soc of disorder synom w sin, fear, disease part of this, therefore apocalyptic prophecies classic theism God is above the world transcendent and also imminent direct impact on world acts of miracles. God’s will. At that time plague, Erysipelas famine and plague. Medieval cannibalism becomes rhetorical motif. No literalism. Yr 10000 anxiety. Fear world disorder and chaos. One world passes give way to another, Renovatio Imperial R.
Preservation of empire as long as last. Taken to be safeguard versus chaos. Otto IIII human guarantor visited Charlemagne’s tomb in Aachen, joint capital w Rome. Also visit tomb of St . Pope comes to Gerbert Aurillac, monk, teacher, scientist, politician became pope, monk, abbot, arch b, intellectual from common stock. Slave children seven deadly sins Accidia melancholia. Sylvester II had been pope of Constantine. Otto III and Sylv II both pope and emperor.
Demographic Growth, extent of arable land forest clearances, marshes drained. Why? Decline in mortality only relative. Scattered population common disease pool. High birth rate, infant mortality. Infanticide girls favoured over boys. Nuptual rate increased married people. Peas perceive greater econ prospects. Move to new frontiers migrate to cities. Urban immigration urban growth but due to immigration not birth rate, nutrition beans and by C13 women live longer because of iron anemia iron cooking pots, church building affirmation of continuance.
Commercial Revival. Maritime Italy trade from developed world Islam and Byzantine to III world of Europe, under developed Christendom. Intermediaries Italians profited. Church prohib cred usury therefore no capitalisation, expansion, incentive development. First merchants hid loans pay back fine, hidden interest or in rate of exchange concealed interest. The Commenda Contact half loan, half partnership allowed capitalisation to conquer Muslim mediterranean.
Origins of the medieval religious crowd, urbanisation. Enslosure landed ests displacement of pop peas to cities, areas of greater pop. Crowds at shrines, altars, streets graveyards, churches C11th locus of crowds. Focus not deprivation but arousal. Churches build because buildings were too small.
Pax et Treugen Dei background predominance of war, but move uncontrolled violence. Political balance disinteg of carolingians and ineffectiveness of Dukes. Soc background social, castellan wants to make estate bigger thro’ aggressive acts peasantry landlords proprietory churches owned by lords. Commercial enterprise tithes compulsory list attend church. De-centralisation and fragmentation, no strong feudal hierarchy of power. Church backed peace material self interest.
Peace and truce, the king’s peace. King want control violence in realm. Three pollutants cash, semen, blood for desecration. Need consecration amd cross universal symbol. Holy sanctuaries, syst of sacrality, holy places and times. Mechanism of peace councils, castellan revivalistic enthusiasts. Kiss of peace. Peace procession, crowds shouting. Relig emotionally backed by monks, bishs, and secular duke royals.
Peace place defenceless people under protection pauperes weak and vulnerable. Spiritual, not socio economic one. Include prists monks unarmed. Sep of soc into ARMED and UNARMED. Class of non combatants for first time in west. Professionalise the warriors allowed to fight one another. Reduct of soc ambiguity, distinct disappears in C20th to maintain detest killing of unarmed people.
Truce no fighting on Christ’s day Sat to Mon give up pleasures of fighting. No fairs, markets courts but limited to Christians implied brotherhood. Peace militia ensure the peace. Cleric Aimo of Bourbon enroll young men aged fifteen act against violence offenders. Enforce peace group. Accompanied by clerics with banners. Armed men w peace, but peace move peas armed against knights see crusade. Relig action and peace, professionalisation of knights reinforce king and duke’s peace as function.
Pilgrimage, disease, econ distress, political rivalries, avoiding situation snob activity. People want to be admired on return from Jerusalem Pigrim if died a good burial. Quasi relig status but exist temporary when pilg finished all pils equal. Supp have wallet and staff blessed C10th Rome pop dest.
1030 Jerusalem conversion of Hungary land bridge opens up. Plebes, mediocres, Archs and mass pilgrims. Great groups Jer ‘city of the last days’ end of the world. Assoc of pil and penance. Penitential act, no uniform system of penance. Classical penitential not used except for scandal, private pain. Books prescribe punishment, tariffed crime. Some long arduous or short sharp. Barefoot pen Jews or no meat for rest of life. Funded growth of new church . Expiation of sin but not standardised books not uniform. People never knew if had cleaned state. Church offered forgiveness for money people glad at.
Religious deviance, the rise of heresy, creed belief matters most. Primacy of deprivation poverty express itself at heresy. Assume class ideology form. Reformism- anti clericalism. Cleric church backsliding. Enthus for reform anti lay heresy. Heresy wants more demanding standards to reflect desire for community. Those uprooted want solace and comp of others, rise of group precedes ideology to group.
Sax emp too much power over church. Papal elections cont by nobs. Emp too far away ex control. Tuscan and Crescenti Sylvester III created divs 1045 families. Benedict IX resign favour of grandfather gregory VI then tried to regain it. G acc of simony meant no traffic in spiritual gifts, or access to bible. Emp Henry III deposed all three popes end scandal.
Install Clemont II Bish of Banbury. Leo IX bish of two provs in Ger followed. Papal reform to root out simony. Punish transgressors. Demo author Flor, Rhimes want independent papacy. Death Henry III. Henry IV too young for control. Mother Empress Agness regent, power of emp weakened. Frederick supp elected new pope want consent of Empress. Popes elected by Cardinal bishs, not noble families, no imperial control either.
Nicholas II for pol Normans, French protection Normans pledged to defend. Made a duke by pope. Arch Deacon 1073–1085 Gregory VII Jewish? Elected by spontaneous gvmt of Rom clergy and people Nicholastism against eccles offices hereditary. Emp deposed bishs. No bishop, no king, need king’s control over bishs. At time of GVII bishs reluctant for this hierarchy. G opp Caron law of church. Canon law dispersed all over Europe. Compressed it into one two swords temporal and spiritual.
Does pope have right to control Emp and vice versa? Pope and emps not own what control. Cluniac monasticism orig code followed by Benedicts rep restoration, 909 Duke Will founded it. Com founded abbot bond w Rome mutual advantage. Mons acc rules Fra and Cluny exempt from secular autocracy at the time of Pope Leo IX. Try end of sec of eccles denied, Cluniacs create spirate climate drawn fight secular ecc, pope and abbot high.
The Gregorian Reform Movement.
Processions as structured community response. Tactile contact with shrine C11, C12. Visual christianity. G movement began before Gregory VII 1073 – 85. G III Wildebrand great reform.
What was it, moral? Church attacked purity versus impurity. Tries centralise church under Rome. Want ch not under men and feudal cords but of popes. Pope Bishops Lord, the rise of papal monarchy. Pope monarch of church, econom reform want church property back from leity. Tithes often went to secular lords want under ecclesiastical control. Emancipat from feudal lay control. Relig status of laymen lived by sex, money and sword. Want separate amd domnate leity. Want to desecularilise kingship. Healing kings end to nostalgia for primitive perfection, impose monastic virues. Monastic clergy regular clergy secular clergy. Investiture conflict. Ring and staff episc office shep crook. Ring bish warmed to diocese, its church and state who should make bish. Medieval reformation, church want change soc,
‘Christ said he was the truth and not the custom’ radical papacy.
Importance to world revolution. Impetus papal monarchy last till C14th. Creation of ref ideology. Focus for church state conflict Henry II and Becket background. B martyr to ecc liberty, church and state remained sep. Disagreement neither power down therefore liberties. Crusade vital to Greg, propaganda war. Pope and Emp want appeal to powerful in Europe led to a public opinion. Helped intellectual revival. Prop war sharpen wits led to renaissance, debate led to law C12 Bolbogna two types
2) Civil, Roman.
New definition of role of priest. Leity pushed out but church found new way of using he leity. First crusade answer to prob need sword of leity ambiguity resolved in crusading. Church opp to Simony denial of Holy spirit traffic in sin. Wanted to make own bishs. Simony bishs need to be re-ordained? Nicholairism try impose celibacy, not chastity. Celib not in long term legalised relation w women, concubines instead of long term relats.
Fear of feudal priesthood. Eccles bastards not allowed inheritance property and clergy separate leads to anti female campaign. Momentum gathers until Leo IX. Legates high church men popes ‘other self’ work on primacy of church of Rome. Reformers Peters Damian emph purity wrote book of Gamor opp homosexuality. Cardinal Humbert-Lorraine ambassador of pope behind papal election decree prob of change and reform. Cluniac order had been reform order for poverty, chastity obedience patronised. Gregs diff want impose restrict on bishs secular clergy. Recipients of donations not want rad ref of church. Suspic of Greg VII. Hugh of Cluny opposed to Greg investiture conflict.
Henry holds synod 1076. Violent reply to Greg said he should be deposed. Greg therefore excommunicates emp. Sudd all Henry’s followers fell away, threat of civ war in Ger. No allies, went to Canossa 1077 beg forgiveness and absolution suffered in the snow, Greg had to, Henry still opp him, Greg deserted by all Roman Cardinals.
1122 Concordat of Worms. Aftermath church state relats struggle for cont of church. Eccles superior could endow bish w stuff disputes remain. Idea of Christendom entity of Christians and borders.
The Coming of the Crusade
Greatest long term consequence of medieval era. Crusade for temperance, virtue etc in C18th. High moral struggle equiv to warfare. Concept continues today. Crusading cross on Columbus’ ships ‘La long duree’ begins 1095 Council of Clermont, anything before was a holy or missionary war.
Conquest of Acre 1291 muslim defeat though crusade persist in C14 and C15th. Need to recover Constantinople as well as Jerusalem. Crusading movement, not just series of battles. Institutionalised entered into Canon law, art, music. Crusade Cruce Signatio cross signing, crusade un christian people. Islam later against pagans on Ger Slav frontier 1147 wends part of the Ger push east. Attacked Jew, heretics, political enemies against papacy Christians disobedient to the pope. S. France, Italy, Crusade grows out of orig geo theatre multi purpose. Some not officially authorised popularised. The Children’s Crusade 1212 pueri only peas no knights.
Debate about origins east and west Latin and w. Christs, Jews, Muslims. Whether cru movement result of appeal E and W. Byzantium calling for help to West. B’s wanted mercenaries to fight Turks Seljurk. Jerusalem calling Peter the hermit pilgrim to F said Jews abused it then went back to preach before Urban II. In fact that perhaps legend Urban II responsib.
Ger historian Erdmann said crusade idea formulated before 1095. Urban II put he pre fabricated parts together Holy war. Idea of crusade precedes crusade. Now hists say urban added and deveoped it but was still fluid until Bernard in Second Crusade. Innocent III (1198 – 1216) also contrib. Idea grows with the movement, not fully fledged movement, just war defensive. Authorised papal response. Holy war dichotemy church militant product of crusae. Image of Jesus celustial, terrestial pueries and knights. Urban II 1077 – 1099 follower of Greg VII but far more political and tactful.
Cluny monk frenchman when gave council of Clermont knew response of French, council of Piaceiza. Adhemar of Le Puy, Raymond of Toulouse meets both on crusade and gives sermon outdoors. Few lay lords most people who come w armies come through news of his speech. Recruitment opening of crusade wants fighting men also many non combatants. Populist, loot denied, devotion alone. Goes to serve to liberate church of God, remission of penance. People confess but don’t know if sins are expiated by crusade. Great Barons but no kings or emps. Normans like Robert of Normandy, Rob of Plades launched on Jerusalem.
Classical phase of the crusading movement.
Jerusalem. (1099) and the signif of the conquest, first cru success. Islam weak. Kingdom of Jerusalem three countries but mutual quarrels amongst leaders. Never enough knights most return. Material wealth not surpass spiritual sour relats w Byzantium. The Crusade of 1100 last wave of First Crusade disaster virtually wiped out. But succ of First Crusade overshadowed failure of others to come. Aim not to conquer strip of land but to instigate crusade movement. Institutionalised immortality of crusade: the idea. Canon law incl privileges. Need mortgage property wealthy crusaders need liquidity. Estates pass to monasteries. Finance shifts taxation allied to crusae movement. Hist of indulgences grow and proliferate. Long term effects as monks of war develop build defense for crusader states, tutonic Knights.
St. Bernard and the Second Crusade. Pope Eugenius III given people ‘occasio salutis’ for people who weren’t knights, penitential warfare. Ber criminalised crusade emph cru once in life time opp to be taken. NUNC now. Recruit for cru and monasteries best men for monks. Kings hoped to derive glory as First Cru people w stained glass windows already but only derived defeat. Lisbon great trophy of Second cru. Wends push to the east v pagan, not infidel failures. Blame apologia Ber’s reason for failure
God’s ways unknowable, mysterious
Cru opp for salvation, triumph over death
Crus unworthy of their holy mission like Israelites in bible. Ber an old sick monk said would lead a cru never happened.
Crusade III Richard the Lionheart. Eng enters powerful territory in Fra thanks to Eleanor of Aquitane. Richard brings Philip adversaries together. Ger Emp Frederick I Barbarosa leads great army to E by land. Rich and Philip by sea takes Cyprus. Ger army dispersed by a river. Rich brill general Philip leaves early. Rich realises Jeru cannot be held, Egyptian attack too strong so C13 Cru done by ‘strategy’ Kingdm of Acre dom state. Crusades of Pope Innocent III greatest crusade after initiation First crusade helps Spans, moors win battle Las navas da Tolosa 1212. Baltic frontier NE Euro sponsor cru v Livonia against pagans. Threat Milan and Engl w Children’s Crusade.
IV and V Crusades underline Villehardouin tells story of Fourth. Leaders don’t say thery’re going to Cairo, not Jeru. In Venice Venetians agree to build transport for vast army, no statistical sense. No of crusaders much depleted. In debt to Venetians, crus take Zorro. Venets excommunicate and break away from papal control. Army suddenly decide to go to Byzantium, set off for Constantinople. Greeks not recog papal author. 1204 Const falls Greeks late latins rape, pillage, believe Villehardouin? Byzant becomes under control of west Romania 1204 – 61
V Crusade led by arrogant Pelagius. Stuck in Egypt and defeated disaster. Papacy blamed Ger Emp.
The Last Crusade of St. Louis. Great army attempt to enlist Monguls to att Muslims, but Monguls do not convert failure. Final cru N. Africa. Attack Tunis. Feeling of missionary cru but Fre and St. Louis die too. Fail Cru bogged down in political warfare. Bad name sup help brothres in the est. Papacy tries to save independence on cru funds. Enlists supp of Fra. Frederick II wiped out by Charles d’ Anjoux. Emp got out of the way. 1274 Council of Lyons try to get cru off ground. 1291 City of Are falls last one. Greg X requested reports why little interest in cru. Humbert of Romas blame human sin, material interests, neverending laziness, disease, deah. Attached to home. Hist of failure. Anti clericalism. Crus open to all aged lepers allowed the cross. Knights lose glamour, political will absent. Shift cru mission, preaching as mode of compelling obedience. Cru persist C14th C15th. V Ottoman Turks but great days past. Rise of cru idea papacy rises and falls with crusade.
Trinitarian Society Insides and Outsides defined.
Duby’s three orders. Hierarchies disting by soc esteem, honour, dignity. Soc of status, not wealth when orders and wealth separate.
Oratones Clergy Monarchies
Bellatones Warrior nobs Tools
Laboratones Peas Materials
C10th Common places by C12th ingrained pray, fight, work. Ratherius of Verona makes more complex chart. S. Itlaly more complex anyway? How does soc definition serve as a way to allow soc to see itself? Show people their place. Directed at nouveu rich? Behav that have stab soc w noble wealth, but only have wealth. No status. Those on outside map lepers, heretics, women, merchants, jews, paupers social religious ambiguity. Leprosy of sin, lazerhouses. Negotiations became poweful. Early med negative vibes then cash econ becomes more familiar less prejudice. Tabboos for same professions cooks, dyers ‘unclean’. From late C11th emph an emerg of 2 leading groups. Gregorian ref attempt to dignify clerical office excluding the laity. Priest must not shed blood, assoc commerce, teach civil law or roman law then professionalised.
Lepers life was expiation of sins, assured salvation. Relig aura potent ambiguity. Heretics, excommunicated. Interdict shut down societies. By C13th too many people excommunicated so less formidable. Self mutilation for church. Heresy spread like disease, therefore allowed. Women Eva Ave Maria like Christ new Adam. Sexual force given to women temptress, lust inspiring qualities that no man could resist. Merchants med att disdain for buying and selling. Feudalism overrides. Money sim to faeces as dirty money. Judas-merchant sold Christ for 30 pieces silver, real wealth in land.
Jews protected by church unharmed till make final conversion. Apoclyptical necessary as witnesses truth of charity but degraded expelled by God, child killing favourite myth. Acc of poisening wells, sowing the black death, Jews expelled from England.
Medieval Towns and Townspeople
Defining urbanism towns and countryide. Choose towns island in rural agric scene but some towns had fields w in their walls. Towns exercise control over agrarian hinterland, not always the case. Towns non feudal enclaves of urban libs in predom feudal soc overstates case. Poss for nobs to be outwith town control it. Town collective lordship saints considered lord of town.
Flanders, Tuscany rel high areas of urban comp to Euro, many towns boundaries and Charter of urban Lib sign of rel indep and self gvmt and municipal law. Begin have distinctive culture. Difference sense townsmen civic pride. Local patiotism and affiliation aesthetic sense. Architecture to seve civic pride C13th. Municipal sense. Town not simply a world but the world. Town chronicles distinct hist of townspeople. Landatio – in praise of one’s city. London 1173 Wil Fitzsteven writes in praise of London. Aesthetic civ beauty pride in cities. Wine, chees, buildings, people all better.
Urban Renaissance greatest indic to change times in medieval civ, more vitality. Age of Clearances 1080 chick and egg. Any adv make towns poss feed towns. Or response to urban growth chance to break subsistence and sell surplus? Not overnight democratic upsurge. Henri Pirenne growth of towns due to revival of commerce, merchants rule and generate trade.
Admin Pilgrims centres bishops ecclesiastical functions.
Realm Kings and dukes help growth
Defense Walled take security in
Town not simply behicle of capitalism. Rival clans occupy diff quarters of city. Aristo infl in Italy in N Europe them fond and form town as money making venture. Urban Revolution? Communal movement. C12th urb neve expan and renew in south. N Europe founding of villeneuve new town. Need increase pol power to go w econ power. Struggle for urb gvmt. Want corp status autonomy from outside interfere. France communal movement. Conjuratio collective oath a Rev act by group of sworn assocs regardless of opponents. C12th Town and crown allied useful to counter poise aristos liquidity. Sworn assoc of clergy nobs and people. Eng towns subordinated by kings and Fra Ger more independent. Townscape firm cut off from countrside symbolically walls, gates, towers. Cross roads within a wall gates classical grid plan. Medieval streets wound in a radial plan. Townsfolk not homogenous divided by soc status. Broader cross section magnet for immigrants. Fortune to be found in myth of Dick Whittington and his cat. Nouveau riche growth of urban patricians rich merchants, judges, merchants from ruling oligarchy. Town fictional idea of rural shepherd.
Peasants and Craftsmen
Technology and history Gimpel and Co tend to popularise. Technology reductionism. De contextualise Lynn White essay on the invention of earliest knitted woolen garments first on baby Jesus. Reason for lessening child mortality and greater parental bond exagg with pace of change. New devices. Instant revolution. W gap between tech adv and academic learning. Latter tend to be rational scholasticism not experimental or empirical except Roger Bacon Fransiscan C13th Oxford. Exceptional work on optics, magnifying glasses and architecture. Techno Triumphalism hist enthus techno adv human progress medieval techno advances
Scratch plough only turn over surface. Diffusion then of heavy wheeled ploughs for clay soil. Rise of blacksmiths. Attached to oxen. Then horses replaced oxen more expensive to buy and keep. Horse shoe helped accomplished move. Romanesque and gothic art. Stone transportation even from continent. Teams of specialist workers. Countryside riches incr productivity more demand for iron availability.
Antiquity harness strangled the animal. Middle ages horse harness improved better use. Invention of stirrup. Power of Knight. Lance no longer just a javelin. Now force behind it Trebuchet hurled huge stones up to 150m. Hydrology water mills. Wind mills too. West exploit animal, water and wind power. Peasants rye, oats, white and black bread
Pulses and beans mostly veg. Dessicated meat. Beer and wine mild germicide safer in epidemic disease antiseptic. Pueri enfants. Remained so until married in soc. Wage labourers. Too poor to marry . Result in immigration to towns from cities. Community then Christianised parish graveyard sign C10th.
Urban econ. Subsist profit. Peas labour more vital. Fares, trades, money lenders. News of outside world. More opp. More commodities. But yeilds remained law. Failed keep pace w demographic growht. Need more land under cultiv. Forest clearance. Marginal land. Reclamation of swamps.
Rights of marriage had to marry within the lord’s land
Head tax. Labour obligations corvees exchanged for cash payment. Banal rights. Custom lord ould not violate it. Risk peas resistance and revolt sporadic. C13th emancipation of serfs more and more.
Christianity uneducated priests ritual not creed. Heretics and womanisers knew little latin ignorance and superstition.
Urban Monasticism, enter the friars
Once friars in towns last piece put in place C14th C15th not much relig innovation. In place first half of C13th takes on familiar look till C16th Reformation.
OFM Order of friars minor
OP Order of preachers
Servites, Augustenite Orders ruling made to stop new orders. Friars rep change from trad monastic pattern, not monks who fled city or monks in monasteries. Tradit monks indiv poor although monasts could be collectively rich. Fransiscans collectively poor Sistercians followed Vita Appostollica by fleeing the world embraced in evangelical urban setting. Rich sponsors target audience for donations. Benedictines had kings, nobs like Cluny and Cistercians got scrub land and improved it. Augustinians simpler mode of supp. Canons small foundations lesser nobles require less investment. Patrons were wealthy town patricians.
Friars assumed vagrancy sent in pairs over Europe. Movement enabled preachers and best people at time and place for crusade. Served church in specific way at spec time. Preach ortho in area of heresy. Assumes poverty of heretic.
Fransiscans start out in Umbria begin following Francis examples of perfect Ch life. Not intend to combat heretics. Francis not a priest, a layman deacon made by Innocent III no clericalised order as with the Dominicans.
Dominicans more radical need theology answers worked out in theo schools. Univ learning used to argue church at high level. Legislator given purpose built rules to follow. Preach recruit at universities for elite, brightest and best. Trained theos and brill speakers. 1291 Average fell and doms slaughtered. Grief Missionary Leonards Tuscan friars, St. Dominic Alter Christus.
Heresy, Repression, Reform
Condemned Eucharist as symbolic heresy from C1000. Intellectual and pop heresy. Preaching heretics Henry of Lausanne. Pious and anti clerical denies orig sin Valdes rich merchant from Lyon. 173-6 wanted to be condemning preacher but lacked knowledge. 1179 Pope approved voluntary poverty that preaching could lead to error. Local bish forbad them to preach, pushed out of church became anti clerical. Separate large group Fra N Europe. Waldensians poor men of Lyons never wiped out survive even today like Cathars, Albigensians. Innocent told Francis that doctrine was reserved for clergy, distinction made. Allow moral preach but no such distinction made with Waldensians therefore driven out.
Bernard Gui’s view. Cathars see marriage as admission to reproduction. Preferred casual sex preached and taught. Had intermarried with the Catholic nobs liked them. Cath nobs not mobilised by church to enforce Orthodoxy on them. Inquisition of the dead if proven that father was dead then would be expropriated and lose all land.
Classicl legacy survives throughout all renaissances, visual oral writings. Old and New testament Biblical passages important narrative and devotional static works of art. Distinct betw public and private art expense of books. Manuscripts illuminated. Rise of Mendican Orders. Churches esp designed for preaching halls. More Fransiscan houses build denial for art within them. King glorified to reflect divine glory. Grandeur, glory cluniac. Oppose to this proximity to God humble simple like Christ puritanical view assoc w Bernard of Clairveau excess distract people form prayer. Exoteric everyone understands art. Didactic bible for poor. Durandus Latria worship God alone Dulia general respect.
Each religion move relig lyric hymnology. Middle ages seculr poetry had been sattire drama. 1140 Ju d’Adam anglo Norman. Biblical stage directions in Latin. Clerics perform though secularised. Architecture, stain glass. Sculpture, wood carvings. Romanesque to Gothic. Buttresses showing heights strength allows stined glass. C12th artistic innovations. Rib vault Goth, pointed arch, flying butteresses, insig of walls allows light to stream in had stained glass pre exist in Ro art? Inspiration for Goth from where? Panovski arg neo platonic myst for light. Relig image. Demographic push for larger church expansion. Add status sermons spec for young men. Crusades tailored C13th hagiography lines of saints life of Christ.
Chivalry from cavalry define proper in taste, dress, manners. Feudal loyalty recognition came to rival Christianity. Court centre of this courtly love young inexperienced knight under older woman, rallity and birth. Knight of Garter Thistle Scot function behaviour birth. Horses not needed now to be chivalrous. Mannerisms and morals Chaucerian times functional role no longer ‘How many knights know their horses?’ none. Expected to fight for lord for 40 days. 1066 Scuttage sends a volunteer, professional fighters at time of Norman Conquest send for capable people, not lineage.Ottoman Empire and the Threat to Christendom
1240 Monguls sacked Kiev next year defeated Ger and Pol princes. Christian world aghast. But disputed election internal conflict so never ventured further. But presence threatening and menacing. West and East relations strain crusaders relatively weak and feeble. Monguls defeated Baghdad and killed equiv of Pope. Centre of world. Turkish forces decisively defeat Monguls. Centre evolves round Euphrates. Crusades to esp Constantinople affected by these wars. Init supp achievement of destroying Byzantine Empire. 1261 Greeks recovered Constantinople then crusade directeed at recovering Latin Empire estab by soldiers of Fourth Crusade. What went wrong?
Byzantines saw was not simple substitution, included imposition of alien latin faith and ecclesiastical way
Latins never came to terms w Bulgarians. Bs had accepted Catholic faith and Innocent III but Latin emps see themselves as heirs to territory therefore attack Bulg 1205 at Adrianople. Latins completely defeated. Baldwin of Flanders disappears defeat. Schlessa two churches.
Michael Palaeologus came up v Venetians. Never succ in doing Vs out of Crete. Also French Prince Charles d’Anjou young bro of St Louis. 1266 defeated Manfred murdered heir to norman ambitions two treaties.
Will Villehardouin under Byz pressure taken adv of marriage
Baldwin II dau of Charles D’ Anjou. Effect on Byz of west. Try to delay crusaders promise of a reunion of churches. Palaologus bluff called by Pope Greg X idealist centred on crusade. Had been humiliated by Mongel battle. Want revive cru alliance for two halves of Christendom. 1276 Pope Greg X died. After that unable to find pope for throne of St. Peter. 1282 uprising of people of Palermo v French overlords. Crown of Charles of Aragon cough Sicily from Anjouvans. Charles D’Angou tries to recover sic v rich. Crusade changes nature. Papacy allow crusade turn form East to Sicily. Gives Byzantines breathing space saved from Charles.
1281 Acre falls to Mambrooks of Egypt conquer what left of crusades. Western presence no longer. No serious crusades till C14th. Palaeologus Unionist policy. Could not restore empire. Genoese go on rampage. John VI tried restore sea power as protection v Venetians, sank by Genoese. V and G want keep Byz broken. Guaranteed commercial privelages for them. 1304 John V new Emp. Married Italian Princess Anna. Strong Italian ties. New power – Ottoman Turnks. Crusade used to bolster what rest of Byz empire to hold back forces.
Friars gone out to convert. Fransiscans and Dominicans to Peking evangelise educated. Agression changes to co-operation. 1366 Crusade of Amadeus of Savoy cousin of Byz Emperor recovers Galipoli from Turks held back T from Balkans. Pal taken prisoner. Turks victory of Serbian powers of Adrianople.
End C14th. 100 years war had absorbed military energies of French and English. Little poss before C14th. Duke of Burgundy improve Christendom and status under his son set out to drive Turks back to Danube in alliance of Daube. Got Nicopolis in Nicopolis Crusade 1396. Autumn muddy defeated by more effic Turks. Should not have been any more crusades after failure of Nicopolis seal fate of Constantinople. 1399 Byz Ep Emmanuel II Papeologus seek western aid. 1400 visited London want money to save capital.
Economy and politics 1300 – 1500
Pandemic endemic plagues. Refuge from plague in Florence ‘Decameron’ escape to the countryside. Ignorant of cause not known till late C19th rat and flea. Chronicles though had religious signif of Indiv sins. Thought clouds of poisoned air. Hygeine stepped up. Infected corpses burned. Social effect some agricultural communities wiped out. N Euro had been great agric rev. Late middle ages phenom of deserted villages. Small towns lose markets. Gen contraction of trade allowing a few cities to flourish. Great buildings 1420 London Guild Hall. Labour is scarce over money as tradesmen, skilled workers. Wider scope greater consumption of general people. Demand for market cloth not homespun.
1381 Peasants Revolt in England seized London for a few days. Ordered good suits soc aspiration. Main authority empire, papacy and royals eclipse of authority of Emperors. In Ger local princes influence expand regalian rights. Charters from past emps allows some to exercise authority tax. In Lombardy resist Imperial authority therefore they flourish. In late C14th C15th consolidate few regional powers made stronger. Kingdom of Naples, Duchy of Milan C14th under Visconti family. In south, Florence great ruling power control of communes. Then Venice was maritime, nostalgia for Emperors landed power.
1310–12 Papacy no longer in Rome, went to Avignon Till 1378. Small bureaucratic admin of Christendom thought papacy in pockets of French Crown more personnel from France fewer from Italy and Ger. Warfare betw French and Eng Crown. C14th suspicion of papacy not neutral? Huge cism prospect of a French pope. C14th there were three popes! Effects prestige.
Princes and Kings exalted though better than oligarchy and democracy as authors from God. Some exceptions, mobs demand. Henry VI, Richard II, Edward IV, James I need taxes for warfare. Middle ages consider tax only rec in emergency. 100 years war. Bargain power of people onus and political tension. Rise of noble faction who want to control king as a puppet.
Crisis and recovery
Edward III d 1377 Philip VI d 35
Black Prince Edward d 1376 John II d 1364
Richard I deposed 1399 Charles V d 1380
Henry IV d 1413 Charles VI d 1422
Henry V d 1422 Charles VII d 1461
Henry VI deposed 1461 d 1483 Louis XI d 1483
French Success. 100 years war in Euro hist huge impact. 1386 truces. 1369 Fra and Castille alliance threat to Eng. Potent threat of C attacking Gascony largely unsuccess but Galley fleet predom in navy. Usually use of merchant ships, but Ga had galleys op in summer in northern water. Operate v Eng and Seine base for. By 1369 Fre Charles V recovered Acquitane seceded by Henry? reluctance to be ruled by Eng King unable to defend, only small coastal strip at the end of wars for Ed III. Son’s help Black Prince ruined.
Eng success found allies w in Fra. resentful people of royal sovereignty. Princely nobs membs of royal house of Fra ruled provinces. Inner tensions respons for Eng succ their resolute use Eng defeat. Flanders Brugge depend on Eng wool import reluct for war w Eng therefore flemmings not want. Brittany succession dispute Ed can redog specif candidte as king. C25th war concern on Fra. Castille, Scot Portugal losses kept on sidelines. Civil war 1408 enables Henry V estab Eng rown Eng. Duke of Burgundy trade recogs Henry VI. Philip the Good’s father been present at assas of Henry V’s father. 1435 Charles II and Philip no good reconciliation. Then onwards fate of Eng rule in Fra sealed.
Consequences of war ravages of warfare long term devastation. Mainly Fra peas suff. Froissart Chronicles of nob chivalrous enounters. Reality destroy enemies resources. Acc to Canon law should not attack churches, civilians, oxen, cows and crops but reality opposite. End resources Chevauchee riding along burning everything in sight. 1419 Henry V decided to conquer normandy not wanted troops to ravage the Duchy.
Develop of profess companies attached to one side or other. Ger, Spa, Eng, Breton engaged for hightest wage sometimes seized frontier castles. Prob when peace betw two sides still want a living. C15th Normandy most prosperous and well ruled by Eng garrisons. Leon also prosp, Rhone valley untouched rel by war. War at sea little attention. Nav trade Brugge port. Ital, Gers, Scots open up Medit se route Biscay vulnerable shipping and navigate headland. Stumped seaborn commerce needed armed vessels to protect therefore lower profit margin little investment as consequence.
Military tech plate armour hand guns. Spiral cost of warfare therefore taxation. Need parliament consent of shires. Only way to ensure payment. Bargain power of knights in shire. Voted customs duties too. Could criticise royal councillors. Evolut of Parl. King needs Knights sup inp constitut develop. Sir John Fortesque says king cannot alter laws, make statues w out Parliament’s consent. Not oppressed by arbitary taxation opp to Normandy miserable. Aides, Gabelle salt tax. Tax at will. Exceptions sin some provinces. Estates General meet v rarely. Parl met twice a year. Huge Fre resources so survive battering. By 1440 Free Crown had first standing army in europe since fall of Roman Empire paid for by taxes. Campagnies d’Ordonnance survive of nation state.
Ed III no need for arb rule not fought on own soil. Villify Fre King. Treachery of king Eng ‘win battles and lose the peace’ apparent mythology. Safety of Kingdom depend on supp of King and war w France. C25th National Flag. St. George Crusader scaled walls military. Now assoc w Eng nation. Cutl of Rescue maid from dragon. Patrioism transfer of relig crusade feeling secular national feeling v French. France easily able to hate Eng horrors. Whether Ger Brets. Many but had no grand sense of nationalism. Good and bad frenchmen said she relieve seige of Orleans. Remote border Champagne recog him as king of France. Eng seen as plague to remain in Eng.
Aristocratic duties rolds and exclusivity under threat in late middle ages. Effected how? Place of nobs. 1484 to pray, fight and work. Self justification. Intellectual justif ‘gathering of birds, parliament of fowles’. Buke of the lowlat birds of prey. Chivalric in treatment of weak and poor protector role. Honour prestige power bound up.
Blood Inheritance usually in male line, status and rights. Dynastic claims. Beauchamp traced tree back to a monster Bardin.
Had to line in noble fashion. Land not seen as profitability.
Clothing, dress, sumptuary laws. C14th C15th famine and plague created social fluidity. Protect keep low orders in place also animals owned by them. Dogs possess hounds and hawks. Tristan and Isolde recog as he treats dead boar.
Social and Geographical Distinction. Nobs most distinguished status, noticeable. ‘Books of Precedence’. Maximise diff betw great and small. Dukes highest ranks Duke of Burgundy descend from Royal house of Valois. Almost own kingdom prof army and burearcracy. John of Gaunt son of Ed III also eyes on foreign crowns. Exceptional power. Princes of Germany v effective. Eng Parliament disting nobs lords lesser nob spokesmen in Gentry Commons.
C13th C14th national monarchies new function within political unit nobility. Froissart historian of 100 years war squire from the Netherlands. Little distincition between noblemen, internationally. Tournament St. Ingleurt for honour of Eng Knights Co. Strengthen ties in war interlude, Pene, Anjou, heroism of battle. Black Prince treatment of captives stage for marshal values. Blind king went to war Henry V ‘War without fire is like sausages without mustard’. Normandy took long time to recover from Henry V. Scots ‘wine guzzlers and mutton sacks’. Service to a lord framework , bougeois not want overturn eltie but join it.Merchants And Trade
C16th rapid grown internally and extenally. Turn from Mediterranean centric to North Sea etc. New methods of exchange and finance allow for long distances opp ends of Euro Direction Method Change three kinds of trade.
Local markets mainly local prod sold, provincial.
Urban Markets local trade and manufacture
Trade w exotic prod from outside Euro East silks and spices
Continental feel fo Euro coherence. Complimentary of prod wine oil grain N or S trade. Communication roads appalling, bridge building ecclesiastical for pilgrims. Only suitable often for horse train of water transport used mainly along Baltic coast canals behind spits to link river network. Canals many tolls increased cost.
Seaborne trade develop of ship design and navigation. Basic merch round ship diff from galleys became faster overland 20%, Sea 2-5%. Bulky goods ie grain necc for sea transport. However all travel v slow. Unpredictablity of sea travel therefore add to financial risks. England to Gascony. Yorkshire wool to Flemish cloth makers. Ger to Scandinavia fish and salt regular source. Trade w East. Euro knowledge of Persia. Asia derives from trade. Dom by Venice and Genoa. The Great Silk Road to China. Spices, silk, indigo, ginger. Only bulk product alum from Pepper mines in Turkey essent for man of loth, change in trading patterns.
C13th trade highest till C16th. Interlude slump but trade develops in sophistication. Ident of merchant class. Geographical change too. Italian Merchng found. Since C11th has higher soc and pol standing. By 1300 mercantile farms behind change in role. Itinerant traders resident capitalists. Employ agents. Florence companies pool of family resources and invest.in range of mercantile activities. Bank handling money for interest. Gen econ collapse in C14th , black death etc ruin. Lend money to wrong people. Frescobaldi lent to Edward III to pay for 100yrs war. Medici dominate Florence. Perm finance estabs tap into N Euro. Development aided by intro of Arabic numerals from roman numerals. Use of double entry book keeping poss determine immed financ posit. Humdrum yet vital nonetheless. Spread of credit syst of finance. Precious metal to credit econ carry bills not money, ease trade. Hanseatic League, Hamburg, Lubeck and Stralsinel. N Ger coast. Fish salt Scandinavian route. The Rise of the Merchant in soc and pol. Merchant Bankers rulers of cities, Medici. Jacques Coeur arranges credit for King. Rises in status win court, Howards aristo traders desire for luxuries expan desire for new trading routes exploration.
Townsmen And Peasants
Townsmen low proport town. C14th C15th peasant society. Towns depended on uncertain surplus of produce size. Very few cities C15 only London considered a city in Eng. Mancini said 10,000 Bristol unworthy. London 40,000. Italy exception more urbanised N Euro lesser. Political Signif scale not only determinate.
Town in areas of weak aristo control grow strong. Italy city states cloth cities for Flanders, Brugges, Ghent, Ypres econ power to pol power. Involved in wars betw aristos for a laws. London centre of nat monarchy pol potent. Economic Status S. Hampton prince port to Gascony. Eng move from G then London and Bristol therefore SH contacts diminish.
Experience of town Life sheer proximity. Winchester 80 citizens per acre, twice today’s density reflects expense, diff of med building and psychological motive. Desire for human contact reassuring also physiclal boundaries. Walls sp Edinburgh ridge. Disease higher death than birh rate therefore depend on immigration from countryside. Violence class warfare immigrants Flemish traders attacked in London.
Jack Straw maintain of blood prices maiming, killing. Class craftsmen mercantile m patricians. C manufacturing bulk of membership of town guilds. Merchants make up oligarchy in towns. Guild structure emerge from C12th C13th brothergoodin Flanders. Guilds of cloth, weavers play role in town manuf princip commodity. Set wage levels, protect prices charged, limited vol of prod contorl entry into guild. Chief focus of urban life. Soc, relig even military provide poor relief to those out of work, patronised churches, provide framework for civic militia.
Most had city assemblies not potent but rep townsmen in pol rep. Municipal pride reflected in public buildings in Brugge. Amenities improve water quality and policing. In Brugge dog sluggers kill dogs. Religious identy town church belong to townsmen.
Conscious develop of civic unity, coat of arms, chronicles of London. Civic festivals, pageants, coalescence of inhabitants. Peasant pop little info illiterate. Image of ploughing, sowing, reaping bound to land ‘the worms of the earth’. Threat of pea rebellion seen as a solid mass but reality not variation of status and wealth called Villein. Bond to service to Lord labour pay rent in produce. Increasing ownership of plough and horse vast incr amount of lend under cultivation. Rising rural elite, yeomanry and pea farmers with featherbeds, tables. Minor nobs marry wealthy elite. Eng ploughmen labourers. Industry thrift, hard working, ambitious. Labs ungrateful lazy and rebellious. C14th rural condits worse not better pop protests labour becomes more valuable commodity but not obsessed by soc and econ advancement. Want more tennis, football, alehouses, less work.
Ideal privileged, within house with servants ‘ a maid should be seen and not hears’. SILENCE jangling chiding, scolding’ speech seen as annoying, also evil. Noah’s wife threat to estab soc and moral status quo. Subversive over ambitious members. The wife of Bath challenge to author of biblical and Christian. Raises & rebukes writins of esp St. Jerome anti feminist. Althernative picture given by Chaucer. Strength of character wealthy, widow therfore independent of male author go on pilgrimage w out uardian. Already been to Jerusalem far from church texts stay at home silently. What was the reality?
Noble women aristo land therefore role as an inheritor and transmittor of property. Heiress no bar on property possess in Euro. Mortality rates lower in women. High level of violence war, hunting, jousting. Commodity econ and political. Wardship exception Jacqueline of Bavaria, Holland and Hainault heiress C15th wins three wills. J already widow age 16 married off again to First cousin Duke of Braubant father had died. After three yrs of marriage fled to Eng married younger bro of Henry V rejected pol marriage. Duke of Gloucester hush unable to regain her lands and went off to marry his mistress. She married four times as the exception.
Financial transaction need a dowry to the marriage money property. All women fate marriage. Received settlement lands for exclusive use remain hers if widowd. Finance provided for. Mar usually last till death few annulments. V rarely initiated by women. Exception Clifford div Latimer on grounds of impotence. Love rarely entered marriage equation. Lancelot and Gwynevere adulterous yet accepted as not consumated. John of Gaunt married Catherine Swynford in the last years of life. Henry V’s widow Catherine married Owen Tudor kept secret. Could not break soc rules. Henry IV secretly marry older women, daughter of Lord. Status obsession, social crime mar outside rank. Noblewoman’s role as produer of male heir. Four to seven children surviving to be recorded.
Many powerful women often widows could be accepted as rulers. Incr role in deveop of culture. Audience books aimed at them romances and relig explanats. Poets from aristo class. Christine de Pisan forced to supp herself after husb’s death. Writer C14 – C15th. Loved at French court celebrity visited spoke out for her sex. Crit pp writers attack.
Women and religion following as mystiques. Personal relat w God opp to role of women in church limit to nunneries. Catherine Sienna, Italy personal reputat of sanctity. Pol life role because of recog relat w God councilled by Popes and princes. Enorm respect for those in touch w God’s will like Joan of Arc 1420s France. Her relat of God guaruntee military supp for Fra v Eng. She was tried, condemned and burnt as heretic by English. Challenge acc soc and moral orders.
Townswomen manufacture cloth dyeing, brewing beer perogative of women. C16th 300 women in Edinb. Women owners of businesses far from rare. Marg Kenpe owned quite a few in Kings Lyn. Victims of prejuice moral behave legal restricts, within this indivs weild influence and power. Queens de facto rulers of realm. Marginal influ lack of voice obscure influence.
Pursuit of the Millennium
History tied up with prophecy, millenarianism not confined to belief in 1000 year kingdom over which Christ rules but expectation super natrual element before the last judgement. Precedent to utopian better life. Reform and purification of church. Conversions notion encouraging not need revocation to bring it about. Death of ante christ last judgement. Crisis and tribulation, defeat Christ triumph and then last judgement of saved and damned. Common view biblical support. Underground belief of dissidence. Millen would come before ante Christ. Then misery then last judgement. Post and pre anti Christ millenarianism. Messianic figure would usher in the millen. Pope? Emperor?
Antinononians believed they were saved splits morality and religion. Mystical anarchists. Saved whatever actions took because God loved them. Disorientated turn to prophets who tell them of inevitability. Prophecy makes things happen not remain academic. Argument Norman Cohn’s Book critique of its argument. Myths help identify enemies Jews. Give indivs white and black hats.
Good bad explain reality, paranoic fantasies explain, prophecy ignites movement of does it explain the movement? Can legitimise instituts. Conservative, not radical Cohn emph revolut implics but do account of exciting prophecies. Prophecies of Circumstance, the Cedars of Lebanon. Obscurity heightened effect, mixture of the dreadful and inspiring. Long run optimism C Ends in heaven well. Mixture of bible and astrology. Two inspirations enforce each other. 1250 magical aura but prophs never falsified and dates revived. 1260 also flagelant 1290 after publish prophecy after event had occurred when Tripoli and Acre fell.
Some proph no social response floating continually updated. Explanation meaning basic need of people. Functions of proph past, present and future made sense, can unsettle. Create sense of optimism hope expectancy counters despair and give sense of divine election. Belief in chosen ones, collective Messianism when triumphalism equates prophecy. Black death stimulates proph. Tribulation catylist. Gods divine plans manifest in times of strife. John of Ruperscissa had vision at time of plague predicted ante Christ would triumph for three and a half years before 1370. Then Christ would kill anti Christ 1000 yrs happiness before millenium end of the world. Prophecy comfort for him in prison maggots in his wounds.
Joachim of Flore d 1202. Cistercian monk prophs never condemned by Papacy. He crit Peter the Lombard condemned for that. Claimed spirit of understanding. Exigy for biblic interpretation. Old and New testament fulfill each other’s three statuses.
Father Old testament
Son New testatment
Holy ghost New age
1260 influence. Joachite proph influenced crusades preached against heretics.Later Medieval Anti Semitism – 1290 – 1492
1290 Expels of Jews in England
1492 Expels of Jews in Spain
Jews in south before the Christians violent hostility massacres and uprisings new factor in south not north. Status in chruch restricted. Distinctive Jewish dress to prevent close intimacy sexual betw Christians and Jews who must appear different, normally hard to destinguish. 1230 first character of non indigenous features. 1190 Great Massacre of York. Jews commit virtual suicide as response. No org Jew community in Scotland. Anti-Semitism could exist w out Jews at all. Circulated stores. Stereotypical hostility image of Jew whether there or not.
1497 Jews fled form Spain forcably baptised J’s expelled from Iberian peninsula. Ashkinazim from West to Poland, Russia Yiddish. Sephardim from S Fra to North Africa, Istanbul, E Balkans, Greece. C16, C17 J pop in euro v small. Fewin Ger emp. None in Sicily, Naples, and exp from Fra. Displaced East. Lawgmuir. Anti Judaism hatred of Judaism Simitism. Old people superceded by Christians. In Rhineland anti Judaic. Anti sem C19th phenomenon. Demonised as phantoms not real people. Massacres at time of black death. Accused of poisoning wells and causing disease irrational at the time even papacy knew it was Anti Judaic 1296 to Semitic 1348/9 something changed.
Literacy not universal so pictures vital image heiroglyph. Discloses fundamental truth. Often in the scene of passion J depected as last tormenter offering vinegar not redeemed. Roman senator is red pushes lance in side. Also depicted as Kane. Stigma soc outcast who may not be killed. Jewish badge Mark of Kane. Like lepers, prostitures soc undesirables identified. Fig of divine disobedience. Wandering the planet. Judas crime of philany merchant sold the Lord . Trade. Money and intemacy. Crime of treason imply proximity. Betrayal of most intimate.
Depictions of crime attributed to Jews of murdered Jesus in eucharist. 1264 Council of priests eating children. Host key fig elevated accus Jews would torture host cut it up w knives, dessecrate, poison. In fact to Jews was neutral but Cs thought they hated it. Validated C miracle J diss was proof that host was the flesh of Christ.
Judaism swigging anus of pig supreme degredation anti semitic, not Judaic. Huge development of Christian drama in every town. Jew often a baffoon Satanic mock tail. After 1290 during med drama Jews still negatively depicted. Chaucer.
Poisoning crime of the weak demand proximity betrayal reflect nearness. Blood forbidden in Jew’s life. But supposed to crave tha which they abominated. Pre vampirism. Cannibalism ante Christ will be Jew. Christ will ultimately defeat him, J servants of devil. Ritual murder acc of killing children. 1144 in England. Myth comes in v late to south Italy and Fra.
Overview outbreaks of pop hostility 1298 – 1336-8.
1298 Massacres assoc w Rindfleish
1320 Js attacked in S Spain. Thought Js conspired w lepars ot poison the Chrisians 1321 well poisoning. First major acc repercussions later in century black death.
1348 Horrendous massacres s Fra, Switzerland, Ger. Arrival of flagelance triggers off riots. Jews at Strasbourg burnt alive, mass suicide of Oppenheim.
Many Js were doctors and physicians. People die after going to the doctor. Access to strange killing curing substances. Fransiscans open pawn shops small rate of interest. Administrative, soc, admin scapegoat. Sometimes relig crusade element. C16th ghettoes in Venice. Then too walled J areas. Civic and pol structures reisted attempt to burn Jews until replaced. Sometimes monarchical author not strong enough to resist pop pressure.
1290 Edward I Act Eng
1306 Philip The Fair Fra
Wealthy learned established in Spain. 1391 Anti Jew Mass to forced convresion ‘convesos’ new Christians could escape C rules. Pang prob Anti Judaic crypto Judaic. Infl to o much by J. 1492 Conquest of Granada. Convin Cath monarchs Js expelled.
Separate from euro experience, undermines stereotypes of conception of medieval and mod history. Islam prosperity brought to Spain splendid cities Granada. Muslim and Christian integration Christian Moors Jews integration Koran. Latin and Arabic in Spain struggles of cross and crescent. Erad of muslim Crusade. Reconquest Toledo great Mus city back into Christian hands. Visogothic Kings was capital 1212 Berbers shattered only Granada survived. Charles V condemned Christian church bang in middle of islam church. Militant religion saints, soldiers, biggots and tyrants. Civil war cath v aethism, not Musl but like crusade cru had ended.
1492 Isabella of Castille and Ferdeinand of Aragon. Fatih and civilisation rejected. Conversion or expulsion. Inquisition Jews, then Muslims Castille then Moriscos converted Muslims. Crusade v Islam crusade v descent. Columbus overseas empire more than extens of conquest euro dom world. Militant relig and oppressiveness, 1492. Col get commission not peculiar exper become signif to define Europe. Europe ‘Iberia’ effect on new worlds. N and S America version of Euro. Poverty of north provinces 1492 Granda. Prep for conquest of America. Wanted possession not trade. W arrival wipe out Carribeans ¼ m 6,000 pop. Diego, Columb’s son cities sign they would stay urban character. Santa Diego western feel. Conquest of Mexico 1821 won indep from Spain. Rubble cities of Aztecs civ without com but rich in gold, colonialism imperialism self righteous.
Why do popular Revolts recur?
Flanders 1280 textile workers against masters and merchants. 1302 French royal army sent in to suppress French cinvalry unlike workers on foot. Battle contrast victory for common people. 1328 Weavers and Fullers defeat of workers at B of Cassel sweet revenge in regions of Beauvis and Soisson 1358 near Paris. Revolt of peasants organised under leaders, esp round Compiegne by Guillaume Cale. Invitation revolts but incoliate groups killed nobles pitilessly. Italy many urban revolts. Florence 1378 wool workers Ciompi set up citizen militia to guard revolt. Men in rich guilds stage counter coup but fail.
1381 Peasant Revolt in England supp by townsmen. Kent and Essex rebel bands took control of London. Mayor saw such sympathy that they let them in the city gates, success for few days. E Anglia, Yorkshire, Cheshire revolts in reaction. 1419-20 Bohemia want set up perfect community at a castle named Tabor. Anti noble leader Zizka. Nobs tolerated it till 1430. Emperor Sigismund got Ger armies to put down Bohemians adv into Ger against effective tactics useful for nobs. Defenced lagers use of artillery but eventually deal w Sigismund turn against and destroyed Tabortes.
1524-26 German peasants were involved townsmen. Made money as mercenaries therefore military skills to suppress risings contrast to Eng use of archers sent to fight in France skill of longbow. Terrifying for nobs, formidable military force.
What were the causes of pop revolt? Development of large scale indust activity. Growing workforce rich profits, weaver guild growing importance wanted political rep. Florentine cloth industry grew, heavy taxation for war. Isles of France. Crown had not succ 1356 King John captured at B of Poitiers. Eng ravaged N France. Feeling King and nobs no longer protecting them. Hierarchy sense of difference went. 1378 revolt of Ciompi war against papacy. 1381 Eng revolt Paul voted new source of tax is head not graded army in France previously paid acc to rank, trigger for revolt.
Acute shortage of lab plague pandemics. C15th op decrease, legislation trying to keep down thirteen Eng statutes of labour. Try keep wages down to prev levels before black death. Serfdom. Revolt in relat to Florence Ciompi revolt against gvmt attempt to keep labour costs low. C25th econ trads defeated gvmt and landowners to manipulate wages. Tensions win elites split.
Jacquerie. King John II in prison in Engl. Charles son acts as regent, confronted by estates merchants in Paris like Sylvester de Medici demographic role attack royal gvmt. March of Paris under Etienne Marcel try take over royal gvmt. Try put pressure on Dauphin 1381 minority gvmt. War v Fra went badly since 1370. Ministers impeached by Commons inpart of 1376. Elite uncertainty critical of gvmt conduct. Also rising criticism of clergy at time of heavy taxation need all abbeys? Money put to use. Climate fundamentally wrong from Christian point of view.
Taborites in Bohemia. Relig reform centred on Prague led by Yan Hus. Condemned for heresy 1415. Trigger revolut famous respected preacher maltreated. Attempt relig reform. Ger peas revs 1524-6 background preahing of Martin Luther of regen of Christian soc peas ideas of reform. Want landlords place relig excitement. Luther later regretted hoards of murdering and thieving peas.
Characteristics of revolt peas limited own community, marriage within 10-12 mile radius. No ideology of revolt, belief in soc hierarchy, mystical view of kingship. Folk belief 1381 Eng rev Richard II as child allowed free movement, reverence of him. 1481 John Ball memb of clergy. Rebels, maidstone captured, then released, preached to peas they were doing Christ’s duty. Symbols used as banners Ger rebs in Speyer used five wounds of Christ. Eng also used Cornwall 1549. Yorkshire rebels 1539 called it a pilgrimage. Rebellion assoc w saints days early May and June appeal to saint protect. Also time of congregation, Shrovetide peas revolt. Seasonal due to ploughing and harvesting. Taborites manifesto read bible then apocalyptic view end of world. Pray fight work collapse Jean de Venette cannot change without due authority.
Two tensions nobs v merchants solve buy out feudal lordship. Italy nob invest in city. In N city independence cities run by rich merchants. 100 yr War now centralised, not extraordinary taxation. Create of comm econ end serfdom. Ag to small communities. Com allow surplus to sell in town progression. Landlords try cream off money off peasants. Raise rents, comfort of interest. Class of nob consumers and pea producers buy lifestyle. Black death land demand down, labour dmand up. The landlords bad together in parl competition class solidarity not suff, not complain if loss of peas. Luther moral criticisms but expect ref from top not bottom. Preach Christ way. ‘When Adam delved and Eve span who was then the gentleman?’ Who move lords? Biblical justification of equality, John Ball sees root cause nobs and peas not dins of religion. Peas not want serf and to own land. Want fix flat rate of four pence per acre to get rid of lordship not lords. Corrupt church own half land, kill evil people want good king, treasurer and chancellors unlike Jacquerie who maim indescriminately.
Usually pop revs easily suppressed, often recurrence in one area, Kent esp sensitive tradition amongst peas of demonstration. Did peas achieve anything?Economic tendencies in their favour won rent tenements at low rates, abolit of serfdom.
Mid C15th building labourers did v well best till C19th in real terms. Fear of rebellion towns and countryside display moderation to avoid trouble. After events 1381 no poll tax then into Parliamentary subsidy. Early C15th new style tax relat to incomes. Urban elites want prov cheap food. How effective? Tendency for quick collapse through suppression. Most towns frequented labour force. Guilds in competition need a big cohesive issue.
Happen on holidays, Christian sanction. Jack Cades rebellion led into London. Trials in guild hall not legal, difficult to sustain pop rebellion. Problems of Monarchies. Fench struggle w English occupation. 1429 Normandy, Isle de France under Charles VI Valois king effect on other properties. Princely dynasties make themselves independent. Powerful Philip Duke of Burgundy (1420 – 65) son Charles the Bold harness trade. Induced by Eng attack. Second half of C14th pol coms sensitive about pol failures of rulers, complaints of bad gvmt.
John I of Castille try to invade Portugal claim to throne through wife. Defeted by Port 1386 face invasion by Eng and Port. At Cortes nobs all wear black make them sympathetic to guard the land and give subsidies. Development of noble faction labourers, nobs, well wishers. Embryonic pol party supp him in his attempt to win royal gvmt, Will stand to gen magnates. Fortescue ‘over mighty subject’. Nobs attempt get income from crown, estates not that great.
1408 Battle of Partisans of Duke Burg v. Armagnac enables Eng to get foot in door. Nobs hopelessly div attempt dismantle authority of king, not constitutional opp, factions want control crown for themselves.
1450 onwards Henry VI Duke York and Nevilles precipitates War of the Roses. In w Euro crown no perogative. Crown of Aragon Valencia and Catelonia C13th compact could not legislate or imp taxes without consent of principalities. Unusual kings upheld justice.
The New Monarchies Eng hist C18th J.R.Green since development of Ed II despotism. Develop of lib reversed trend, Charles VII – Louis XI inherited church syst heavy taxation won’t consent. Louis XII spent lots on warfare, want consolidate control threat of Habsburg Italy Spain Ger. Hardly any pop protest in Eng after War of Roses.
Dynasties feel insecure of noble faction therefore not able for taxation. York and Tudor dynasties not want involve rival claims to throne. Continental rules successful but Eng built up landed income. Crown lands under Henry VI £13,000. 1483 £22,000 crown lands, Henry VII £40,000. Henry VII imposed tyrannical enorm fines on those who broke statues. Offend forfeits. Holds nobs and gentry in his hands. Henry VIII executes two councillors most respon for policies. Henry VIII want appear sensitive more secure dynasty huge subsidies can now compete. Need money for incr of warfare costs. Army size increase. 1544 captured Boulogne w 44,000 men Father 12,000.
Transform war wage artillery in sieges and in field. Use of infantry too bowmen, knights and squires, long pikes and hand gunners. Progessional soldiers brought in. Henry VII and Francois I meeting at the Field of a Cloth of Gold. Huge extravagance pre fabricated palace erected for occasion. Fountain of wine, wood palace and canvas huge tent cloth of gold, pavillion, tilting ground. Henry VIII outshone Francois I. Vast expense, brief diplom conference not even produce treaty. How get away with it, read Andrew Thomas?
The world transformed
Beowulf Villehardouin Mundy Hay Longman
Monarchical author recovrey C15th C16th the new monarchies. Francois I could raise money with little protest through tax. C14th C15th lots of opp characterised by little nob revs. Money spent at court Valois and Habsburg or Italian wars only small purpose wasted money. Extravagance increase is size of princely courts. Beowulf place communal.
Louis XI under 300 officers exclude visitors.
Hotel du Roi 1523 – 540. 1585 – 622 people.
Wages 1571 – 65, 915 livres, raised to 1535 – 240, 918 livres excluding expenditure of furnishing and building palaces. Francois I Chambord, St Germain. Henry VIII – 12 – 30 palaces. Francois want get away from Loire Valley. Return of monarch to Paris old cramped Louvre when Eng move away. Painful memories of Loire. Renaissance princes encounter no opp. Henry VIII reformation diss of monasteries rumours of tyranny.
1537 revolt in N Eng supp of nobs lesser gentry in commons. Pilgrimage of Grace, king has no forces to rep York. Negot at Doncaster w Duke of Norfolk. Then send petitions to destabilise revolt. 1549 pop reb E Anglia led by Robert Kent. Rebs capture Norwich guage w kings forces neat org encampments. They negot w king. Why favour exerise strong monarchical power? Valois King threat by Duke of Burgundy killed at Battle of Nancy by Swiss Louis XI allies. Char-the-Bold died leaving teenage daughter therefore free crown absorb Duchy of Burgundy.
Elites allow great power to kings, people who mounted scaffold made loyal speech before beheaded, new technol printing. Royal Proclamations end of C15th enry vII spread image of king justify and ordinances and statutes. Less laborious multi copies change in economy. Revival pop growth early C16th. Growth in Fra. 1483 – 1500 royal privs granted for 344 new markets and fairs.
Paris grows 200,000 before black death not substantial then 400,000. War outside Fra interests. 1494 invas of Italy interest. Leon armies, Marseilles naval Lyon 1450 20,000 technol from Italy silk. 1850 80,000 indust. Le Havre naval base early C16th pressure for magnates to get crown rev not so great get more from estates weaken factions.
Large nos civ servants committees and kings council face disputes. Audiencia councils king settles. Corregidor king appoints people, offering amities to lesser nobles. Retain gentry services of kings knights who act as local offics. Conspic in Eng 1405 – 1509. Large sums given for life. Many families prev attached to local nob. After 1537 Henry Percy Earl of N’land landower has diplomatic illness after reb disgrace. Grovel before acc of treason then king spreads influence over Yorkshire.
Paradox of roy power writings written in same terms as state power in Rome. Renaissance recovery of Caesar’s works, educational curricum Latin and historical texts Rom repub and empire central idea of state power. Great men in ancient Rome sacrifice themselves for state. Well developed syst of loyalties actual factuous retaining network. King subjects ill get rewarded as no one else could, medieval.
Worldly knowledge of europeans crusaders eye opener. Develop of mongul empire C13th poss travel acc Asia and China Rubruck reports. Fransiscans given Giovani di Piano Carpini contrast w popular travel bus. Travels of Marco Polo but liked tall stories doubts. C14th. Mongul broke up therefore no longer poss travel ac Asia, last port of Acre though Genoese still trade w last port of Acre.
C14th contraction of knowledge of world. Book of Travellers tales by Sir John Maudeville. Peoples lands w monstrous beings, pushed back with discoveries. Maps of world relig sig Gods world from C13th know were spherical relief landmass took up large % of world surface, Gibraltar pillars of Hercules. C14th.
Papacy and French monarchy Boniface VIII to Gregory IX
Papal admin develop of papal court judicial direct owed to pope not bishop. Crusade powerful instrum supp heretics. 1207 dispute King John case referred to Pope who provided own men Stephen Langton. Neither kings or monk acc Archb of Canterbury therefore England put under interdict, services suspended. Burials not in consecrated ground, clergy obeyed pope not king. Pope John excommunicated, eventual victory for Innocent III 1198 –1216 Vienna. Boniface VII 1294 – 1303 decree. C13th role of Cardinal important w papal central gvmt to preside over courts. Pope sent legates Eng to set up John III but they serve absolute monarch. Advice only influ during election of Pope.
C13th pope heresy driven to unite villages. Albigensians, crusaders expelled from Asia 1290. Papal Bull Unam Sanctam 1302 Boniface VIII papal claims. Supreme spiritual power also temporal gvmt delegated to lay rulers. Chronicler Matthew Paris in England hatred of papal court. Forge letters allegedly written by popes to blacken names. Whig sees euro central gvmt roman rule destroy autonomy of bish rep common view of clergy.
Chronicle pub by Eliz I Archb of Canterbury. Protestnt propaganda develop of papal taxation initially of clergy. In 1231–2 disturb in Eng headed by Yorkshire Knight Robert Tweng growing enemies of papacy tax one tenth of wealth. 1319 John XII Fransiscans excomm as heretics for being humble anti papal, idea of pope as anti christ. Defensor Pacis papacy appeared to have strong power but its growth had produced reactions. C14th C15th papal author extraordinary continuity. Calenders of papal letters even to most remote areas privelages build private chapel. Dispensation of illegitemate priests. At intervals declared Jubilee if went on crusade Rome 1450 – 1500 flocked. During that period city was transformed to idiom of princely culture. C14th C15th comments on awful place. Poor water supp. Dangerous and unpleasant for pilgrims. C14th and C15th popes live more in Rome.
Disillusion w papacy in Oxford Don John Wycliffe said papacy was usurpation, no warrant in scriptures. C13th C14th conciliar theory great Councils of Church. Papal reform of Christendom was Pope’s summoning of late C14th theologians. Council’s author supercedes pope after summon.
Philip IV confronted when insist son of crown Boniface VIII. Philip arrested Bish acc of treason. Spiritual temporal author B though win like Innocent. 1301 Bon at town Anagni band of soldiers led by Wil de Nogaret arrested the pope. Eventual release undermined health. Enemies in Rome many willing to ally w French crown. Philip IV cheek not political negotiation. Papal interest to appease Philip IV council to be scrutinised so Cardinals elect subj of Boniface. Clement agree to calling of council at Vienne 1311 – 12. Papacy takes res in Avignon just outside France, inconsequential town.
Great Schism and Conciliar Movement
Council at Vienne, centre at Avignon. C14th bad reputation Bishop of Rome assoc w tomb of apostles. Papacy functioned well despite more accessible. Increased bureaucracy to cope with private business from 100’s to 1000s. French posts as prelates. College of cardinals suspic Avignon popes pro French esp strong in England. 1307 Gregory XI decide revert to Rome irremovable suspic offices then Greg died 1778. Who could the Cardinals elect to deprive Rome of revenue?
Prignano elected by Italian nobs who wanted a Roman pope then dressed up an ageing Roman then materialised as head of civ service. Urban VI told of reform prospects, annoyance of French who withdrew. Complaints of duress therefore elected smooth aristo French man Cardinal Robert of Geneva. Anti pope Clement VII great schism.
Clergy resent papal power but they suffer criticism from laiety result of papal reform. Clergy sep order in chruch perform mystery behind altar and dress diff set aside. Laiety resent clergy protection get away with murder. Archdeacon courts moral resentment, clergy felt vulnerable. Develop of pol communities Com of the realm. Boniface VIII v Philip IV Fra. 1296 Clerics Laicos forbad clergy pay tax to Philip IV who was at war with England’s Edward I main source of revenue.
Philip IV summon assemblies.
Boniface conceded letting partial tax of clergy. Avignon res exacerbated finance probs provoking clergy. Direct tax of clergy by papacy thereafter negotiate w king. Unavailable money C13th control over lands of St Peter and revenue crashed. Pol control crumbles result of popes’ absence. Signori usurp control solve recovery of St Peter lands. Gregory had returned due to recovery.
Patronage over ecclesiastical benefices. Pope appoint bish, canon, rector but provision of successor source of patronage reservations. If papacy sponsored someone a benefice could claim 1 yrs fee. Investment. Oxford Cambridge sent roles of graduates as benefices. Corporations and statutes passed in Parl 1351 and 1353 statute of provisors. Statute of Praemunire.
Those who took papal bulls Eng liable to prosecute. Restrictions of papal jurisdiction not stop because the king elected him but papacy discredited and could not resist growing princely power. Could not protect crusading orders of the templars. Acc of outrageous behaviour by Philip were abolished no defence. In Rhineland king declare author in HRE power without pope’s blessing. War v Fra properties seized by crown. French monk spies? Monasts dissolved by English dissolution w papacy.
Crusading movement C14th. Ottoman Turks threat Byzantium. Nicopolis 1396 French defeated. Origin of Crusade papacy initiated now kings of Eng and Fra and papacy was secondary. Begin of prolonged schism coincide w another outbreak in 100yrs war. Charles V Fra want expel Eng from Fra 1377. Councillors upset about pope in Italy gone back. English supp Urban. Scots supp Clemetis. Want crusade v schismatic French. French army drive back debacle. Certain enthusiasm, soon wanes. Truces 1389 lessen incentive to supp opp popes. Papal bureaucracies fatigue.
1394 papal elect at Avignon. Spaniard Pedro de Luna Benedict XIII self perpetuating rivals, own offics general council of the Church.
Dietrich of Miem all agree could not solely choose pope. Need a reform within church. How much authority does council have? Say Gen Councils superior to popes. Can depose two deposed popes. Another elected. 1408 three popes. All adamant.
Council of Constance. Sigismund plenary sessions. Concilar decrees set up for Ger, Fre, Eng and Italy. Later Iberian delegates for short term achieves. Nullified interests of popes but Italians unkeen. Kings had influence too. Conciliar Decree Sacrosancta councils superior to popes. Deposed John XXIII Gregory II and Benedict III. J G remained cardinals.
New pope Colonna impec ecclesiastical pedigree Martin V. Solve schism. But council v antagonistic. Cardinals resist reform. Anglo Ger alliance w council and Henry V cajole the pope to his side instead of mediating. 1419 Coundil ends. Other degree frequent scheme of regular meeting council. Sienna Council 1420s not accomplish much. 1431 Martin died. Eugenicus IV v hostile to conciliar fathers at Basil. Council of Basil becomes radical assemb. 1433- 5 Abolish syst of reservations etc patronage which cut papal privs and finances often not adhered to. E tried to transfer council, council deposed him. Lingered on executed own Pope Count of Savoy Felix IV discredits young and ambitious. Talk less practice. Ex ecrabilis condem idea of council superiority over pope. Council’s effect on church and society strengthen idea of national churches and nation state.
1438 Charles VIII accept monks and abbot’s election of pope patronage prospects. Gallican liberties. Strenth nat church & power of princes. 1487 Janes Iv scot delay with Innocent VIII can be filled by papal provision after eight months after kings’ suggestion for candidate. Abuse it shamefully illegitemate sons Janes V also.
Need for reform? Papal provision cost for court. Post medieval church reformation and counter reformation. Poverty of clergy who did the work. Rich property held by monasteries wealthy possessioners and poor clergy small earnings. Aftermath of black death legislat of labourers to keep wages low. Also of parish priests, shortage of priests. Peasants revolt 1381 leader was John Ball poor clergyman.
Priests, bishops rich. Friars maintain poor way of life mendicancy historic attachment to poverty criticise wealth. Reform could not alter property holding. Henry VIII destroy monastery wealth but not of bishops. Parochial worship Wilton dictic. White Hart of Richard II, angels near national banner and religion harnessed cult of St. George and England. C10th personal devotion betw Christ and King.
The Invention of the Middle Ages
New dimension of space cosmos concept of renaissance, revival of classical value of visual arts.
Space Harmony Summetry. Revival of classical value of letters class scholarship
Complicated dimension of pre-christian time. Ad Fontes to sources of ancient world.
We prisoners of concept of history from renaissance. Class rev of letters rev of rhetoric. Divide Italy of renaiss and middle ages. Exagg contrast of own time and earlier period. Libertas italica. Defeat of Battle of Barbarossa vict of new urban, comm soc. Autonomous develop. Medieval lerning at uris of Padua Bologna of C13th. Theology scholasticiam at odds w italian soc in concept of time. Lay soc – own perception.
Theo framework of analysis. Usury. Time is god’s lend money on passage of time therefore arrogating pride sin of Lucifer therfore man the merchant can hardly ever if at all be pleasing to God.
Homo mercator vix aut numquam potest deo placere.
Italian mercantile enterprise challenge scholastic framework book keeping. Lay culture not contained w in ecclesical framework. Quest philosophes damned for eternity of past. V early form of anti clericlaism C14th. 1348 Boccaccio Dirty mountain assault on. On monks decameron omnipresence of death. Generation especially sinful. Death forgranted, eternal death, not eternal life. New sense of time over the abyss. Dark ages sep petrach medum avum between ancient world and ren same as our notion humanities. Humanism diff to mod humanitarian secular here and now humanist values.
Complex of humanism school techniques. Back to back to origs. Dynamism meaning between idea of school persue active or contemplative life. Politics corrupt by state or time contemp sublime. Otium Active Negotium. Ren scholars by 1400 new phase civic humanism. Cicernian values institutional in sevice of republic. Roman Repub principle tyranny Want find out what went wrong? Arrogance. Forged 1400 Florence threat by Duke of Milan. Leonardo Brummi Liberty Tyranny. Cariacature duchy of Milan tyranny Florence as a republic. C15th Humanism change again. Contemplative withdrawal from pub sphere. One family triumph Medicci recovery of Greece, not Roman world. Ottoman expan texts west Plato discov like Aristotle of middle ages. Ideal terms. Closer to god through progressive refinement of sould. Need a priest if can refine own soul? Landmark Roman humanist. Lorenzo Valla donat of Constatntine. First Christian emp authority over all other bishs in euro pillar of papal supremacy. Forgery. Author of pope not in scripture. Valla no mention of popes monks abbots in bible Erasmus’ inspiration.
Machieavelli Florentine humanist want application if lessons of past to won time. Why not imitate the past? Should uphold religion reject Christian framework and rhetorical framework of humanists. Middle ages invention of P. Mach relat to Florence.
The Florentine Achievement
Renaissance imitation of Rome and ancient hist thro’ humanism. Republic empire how? Machiavelli most important between Plato and Marx. Medicci possible rel peaceful transition. Widespread transit of Florence culture rest of europe in process loses princely gvmt from repub. Public and accessible elite before Medicci 1434 owe much freshness public accessible culture. Civic humanists not celestial. Godly city appreciate material fabric. Not always womb and death from dome to spire. Render things to Caesar the things that are Caesar’s competition of artists.
1408 competition to design bronze doors. Brunellesci. Interact of humanism and visual arts. Accessibility of art in open public places. Yet reality family based faction.
Pop 40,000 political male adult pop in cities guilds 1414-21 6,ooo. Fairly representative. S great guilds merchants dyers, wool merch sep from handicraft lesser organisation.
Florentine state like family business, the state a family concern suited to princely taste. Court and countryside less city had always been implicit away from austere realism fantasy Dysneyesue chivalry.
Repub austerity goes family palaces, princely palace capture in palaces, beautiful private art.
1494 Collapse of Medicci shift to Rome. High Renaissance peasants war in Ger 1542-6. Spiritual not social revolution. Political disaster patronage of princes. ‘Blessed isle’ Tudor monarchy suppress liberties back commercial society. Town control, Prot work ethic. Utilitarian morality not symbolic gesture.
Object to indulgences full remission of sins first in 1063
Pope Alen II in Spain crusading contest indulg for building Cathedral going to Rome for Jubilee. Money equiv act Friar Tetzel despised by Luther. Criticised not idea about abuse of indulgences.
Justification by faith only not by works, Catholic. If not enough good works, pay in purgatory. Luther free secular soc from church not from reformation but of pessimism in church yet positivity of own salvation
Priesthood of all believers definit no special relationship with God. Priest is a teacher but not a mediator advisory.
Justified through Scriptures. Tradit of church added too much. Opp of renaissance yet sim looks back to Greek not Latin origins. Greek translate into German to break monopoly of priests also eucharist. Trans substantiation of blood and body bread and wine transformed. Prot remains same just representative. Collective imitation of last supper. Luther consubstantiation say both substances are blood and wine. Prot flat no raised architecture. Cath luxury create awe in congregation.
Why Luther? German nationalism Brandenburg. Pop movement gen by reformation Frederick The Wise. Prot princes challenge to Charles V power. Lucky Turk threat diversion. Peace of Augsberg 1555 De facto inability of Charles V to impose uniformity. Charles V power over pope Henry VIII not granted divorce from Cath of Aragon.
Bias to reversion and antiquity not just utility. Now notion of progress in history. Then sense of revertion present as past. Obligation to god community in relat to God Soc church. Monasticism most virtuous life.
1st estate clergy renounce world save everyone
2nd estate nobility fight to protect 1st estate
3rd estate work to support other 2.
Negotium business Otium leisure
Active service which more virtuous? Contemplation in form prayer had been. Christianity form of service to city. Not attack upon it. Seular city gvmt spiritual church, work for either more equal spheres. Aim same yet different planes.
Renaissance challenge secular est 2 & 3.
Reformation inner movement attack whole idea of 1st estate. Justif by faith not works. Luther more radical. More democratic than renaissance. Works of ren seen as corrupt. Classical model rich virtuous serve city. Luther believe what individual feel.
Both papacy and empire left Italy, ideological centre for both. Evaluate close relat. Reject Goths and architecture. Assert own values. Growth Italian patriotism. Why look classical culture. Pick diff things out of culture. Emperors pick out empire. Florence republic.
Why active service to state notion? Top of third estate. Upper middle class. Chivalric notions and birth. Could not change noble birth. Peak of secu virtue pay mercenaries. Like patronage of arts and pub buildings. Status not about praying or fighting. Working not yet respect. Money from banking buys classical culture greater than fighting or praying. Leisured class made money by dishonorable usury state. Just emphasise spending of money not source.
Medieval symbolic rep not realism. Reminder about laity not want worship picture. 2D Renaiss man centred dignity of man and human form. Man to God aspire to manhood. Discover ideal man. Ideal form interest. Human. Princely worship wise and virtuous. Divine right of Kings.
Cultural change true guide. Reasonable of enlightenment Romanticism. Shock of today. 1494 – 1530 Dramatic change in italy plus gen repercussions I nEurope. Huge military capacities. Reformation splits euro. Italian states drop out of balance of euro power. Scale change power mobilisation. End Italian autonomy. Struggle Habsburg Vallois. C11th Greg VII revolution. Then conflict empire revolut. At same time of shift of power. Confidence of Rome Damnation of man. Florence under Medicci control ‘stable’. Venice wealthy. Territorial stte stretch to Milan v Naples conflict.
Intricacies of Italy soon to be cast irrelevant. Rome Alexandre VI seek own aggrandisement. How compare to French monarchy? Fra Demise of Burgundy 1477 fall Charles The Rash. Centralisation of military power. Approach standing army from feudal levy.
1494 –5 Charles VIII invasion
1500 Louis XII
1515 – 19 Francois I
1519 – 29 Francois I v Charles V
Valois v Habsburg
Charles VIII 1492 Atlantic world opens up. Lorenzo tie magnificent bal power. Duchy of Milan and Naples dynastic claim to succession in Milan. Florence collapses Charles conqueror not ally. Republicans say farewell to Medicci relig impact.
Fragments shattered 1519 esp biggest world yet seen Charles V empire. Sheer no of battles Coqua and Pavia. Clement VII changed sides to attempt counterbalance of power French Charles and mercenaries charge and sack Rome. End of papal empirical conflict. Papacy shattered. Moral regeneration but not ob as a world state. Charles V medieval emp last pillar of Christendom. Charles world victim of military revolution. Infantry fortification redesigned by Leonardo and Michelangelo.
Luther’s attack on papacy. Henry VIII dossolved monasteries. Today wary of great man approach. Confessionalisation shrink relig frontier emerge of nat church in Fra & spa. Ger slower. Great schism C14th and conciliar movement. Protests of Wycliffe & Jusse & gen anti clericalism. Release of laiety recog of non Christian past. Why reformation not happen earlier? Renaissance in pattern of cultural revival. Reformation happen only once Ravine unbridged. Why then?
Attack on ideal of monasticism. W christendom in midd ages was a syst of gvmt ecclesiology, cath ed, gvmt, literacy, record and power. At centre papacy and papal monarchies. In localities rep of monasteries alleg to Pope. Papal monarchy pronounce, monastery enforce. Can break any ties of allegiance feudal kings monks job to reform. Crusade ‘great monastery on the move’. Insep from Cistercians sep clerical order taken vows to 3 ideals
Fabric of med Christendom virtually no scriptural justice of papacy. When discover Donation of Constantine fraud against shaky exist. 1075 base on Roman Law. Distinct between office and holder of. Strength of pap off of Pope not subverted even if holder unworthy. Complain v corrupt pope but not corrupt papacy. Personalised. Office remains sacresanct. Attack central therfore local.
Luther att papacy. The building of St. Peters in Rome money got from Germany weak. Expedient sale of indulgences. 95 theses dispute pope’s powers to release souls from purgatory in return for cash. Close ot admitting heresy 1521. Huge danger for luther. Idea of freedom of a Christian. Open letter from Luther Leo. Say nothing personal but against Rome. Red of papacy not pope. Replacement of paraphernalia word. Spread of communication revolution. Printing Lit rates low and cost high yet ideas circulated fast. Attack on povrety, obed and chastity. Exposure of monks as a sham. Distinct celibacy and fornication. Many reformers had trained as monks. Erasmus illegitimate son of monk and mistress. Marriage betw soul and Jesus. Thomas Moore ideal of closed communities utopia. Uniformity. Calvin’s Geneva huge monastery.
7 deadly sins ‘god is watching’. Huge fear of sex. Eve in league with devil. Temptress. Procreation sneered with guilt. Identity of Eve. Ravishers & witchcraze. Age of syphillis worse than plague. God’s punishment v chastity.
Counter Ref caths. New order separateness. After Luther even sep order of priests justif by its involvement, not seclusion from society. Monastic missionary ideal. Soc struggle who provide best charity and education. Rival miss compete for Christendom and euro expansion to the emerge of the modern west.
Luther’s reformation split Christendom. Sanctification of marriage not celibacy. Yet old prejudices remained. Social war of instituts protestantism poor relief hosps ,education. Matched by reformed Catholicism. Monasteries missions. Rivalry confessions. Competition. Euro overseas expan whether Cath Prot. Livingstone’s missionary work. Educ and health poor. Missions divide europe but on rest of planet, missions unite. Attitude thinking they have notheing to lern. Raw materials of educ materials yet learn. Mediterranean centred on venice Europe – Globe. By 1499 Venetians want open canal at Suez such was isolation of worldly expansion,
Magellan Portuguese man in service of Castille 1517 circumnavigation. Horrendous suffering but must not romanticise. Parallel to Crusades. Early portuguese navigs want open up North Africa Muslim dom commerce. Euro attempt to find weakness. Not interest in land just coasts. Spaniards west like armed pilgrimage. Frontier war. Cont extent of Christendom by reconquista. Spans not impose new model of capitalism or ideal. Aims for gold, land and Indians. Huge savagery. Spanish mastiffs. Measles syphyllis exchange. Common perception but less evidence now for disease. Indigenous pop half a million as a result of direct violence. The Black Legend of Span tyranny 1550. Bartolome de las Casas – leader of indigen. Debate disinteg – polemnic over violence. Convenient for Dutch & English. Pop native collapses – need slaves to ship in. Origin of slave trade. Yet Puritan alternative not much more moralistic. Defenders of liberty v Armada were attaking limbs of Irish ‘plantation fodder’.
Columbia Venezuela ‘little Venice’ thought America was Asia no recog of diffs. Evidence of Marco Polo. Expan of Ottoman Turnks. Perhaps Luther succeed because of Ottoman preoccupation. Charles V West interest in Persia also, Euro trade routes Venice old centre of world econ. Now eastern outpost of west. C16th euro dom by shadow of the crescent. Strange alien savage culture. Bring impalement. Man sources endless. Anatolia principality under Osmans dedicated to Holy war. Checked C14th end. Oblig of war v infidel.
Some Euros acc superior culture pref aspects. No struggle of precedence by birth or wealthy. Only merit judged meritocracy. West expan threat Constantinople. 1453 Turk army. 1463 then threat Venet posess Greece by coast. Suljeman the Magnif (1520-66) most signif expansion. Thrust v Hungary. 1522 Rhodes. Mohach (1526). Thereafter fail 1521 Belgrade 1522 Rhodes tiny nos of defenders. Also Vienna 1529. Cowering. Yet Suljeman not want take on Charles V in field. Yet cannot fight new improvs of fortification. Malta 2,5000 win v 40,000 Turks. Not war of attrition. 1566 also true. New west fortress and fine power. Throw Janisseries yet are driven back by guns definit of E border of Euro. Ottoman weak because need continual move. Rewarded with loot. With distance 100 days plus away from constant. Diff London mid C1th enterprise Canada Muscovy first as Venice had been the centre. Mercantalism mainly c17th. C16th obscured by relig divs.
Reformation, confessionalisation, nationhood.
High ren suffering on cross anxiety of whether salvation. Grunewald harrowing. No comfort and solace express spiritual thirst. Need interpretation. Pope just wants more and more money. New sources of indignation. Ger esp abused by Rome. Exploited from abroad. Protest ‘wounded nation v Rome’. Peace of Augsberg 1555. Who ever controls region controls religion. Estab confessional states. Sovereign decides Lutheran Catholic. Same year as Clvin triumphs in Geneva – yet no allowance made for. National independence linked.
Increase definit religion of politics. Secular interests. Later midd ages Decl of papal monarchy reversal. Height Innocent III. But by Bonif VIII decline Q of Avignon C14th. Great Schism. General Council. Decide. Conciliar movement. Influ in develop of politics. Rep gvmt within church. Huge implics. Components. Assembly of church. Ecclesia gath of faithful Christianus op thro’ reps for ecclesia. Cardinal Bishs who elect pope. If waver decis majority. Bishs drawn from rations nations. Eccles union Conciliar movement grand develop of national churches. Crystallised by Remaissance. Renew emph on Roman law useful for lay rulers absolutism. Princeps prince above the law. Will of prince has force of law. Whatever pleases the prince forms the law. Princely absolutism combine as national rep of conciliar combine to nation. National spiritualism. Nat relig identity. Indep of papal monarch. Eg Behemia. Late C14th. Thrive centres o fEuro culture till 30 yrs war. Bohemia escape black death. Complex of implics. University of Prague Charles Univ. Divided between diff nations Teutonic German and Czech Bohemia.
Who rector? Severe division. Background to Hussite Revolution. C16th manuscript Wycliff, Husse, Luther. Hussite pess for eutraquism communion of both kinds. Cath – bread & wine. Congreg only bread, no wine. Hussite want both. Seek rep of views at councils of rivl popes. 1438 Council of Constance – deemed heretic & burned. Imperial safe conduct saves Luther. Husse’s followers ‘send waves of crusading armies. Bohemia remain not church beyond Roman influence.
Sins less violent occurences. C15th Fra. Philip the fair early C14th develop of princips o fGallicanism. Papacy effectively regionalised. C15th Fre monarchy incr poewr of eccles appointments. 1438 Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges Pope control over ecc appoint abolished with annual taxation. Confirmed 1516 extended. Aggrement concordat of Bologna. Pope acknow no author in Fra. Fra still Cath country.
Spanish monarchy. C15th Reconquista compete v. Islam. Confirm special identity ‘defenders of Christendom’. Papacy find imprison in Bohemia. Spain succeed in driving out Islam. At time complete reconquista and Bohemia indep. Then papacy gets stron on witches. Papacy needs relig success Spain forged by race Inquisition. Only institut refer to as spanish. Castille and Aragon diverge tradits. Kings of Spain pressurise Castille. Yet Inquisit crosses. Inquisit reports to Cath monarchs, not papacy.
Reformation turning point. Context Ger homeland. Yet operation changes. Xinveres de Cisneros visions of apcalyptic kind. Founder of univ 1507. Also lead Inquisit. Contradics. Ferd of Aragon dies 1516. Charles I Regent in Spain 1516. He bans indulgencies not want money to Rome. Most Cath country. Champion of Christendom. C16th resurgence of Catholicism. Charles V & Philip II confrontats with pope. Charles V abdicates. Declaration of war by pope. Bohemia Fra Spain. Consid before England. Precedents for henry VIII actions. Nat sovereignty thro leadership of church. Under spell of Roman Law king exercise imperial power of sovereignty. Acts of Parl push thro by Thomas Cromwell. No other earthly sovereignty. Henry never Prot but schismatic Cath.
Thomas Moore block as result of protest. Push thro by Cromwell. Patts of nat eccles sovereignty. Papal state divides Italy therefore cannot unite. Machiavelli. Medicci Pope Leo X. Ger divided amongst territorial princes. Brandenburg, Bavaria, Saxony. Three rivals. Citeis only acknow superiority of emperor. He depend on papacy delcine. Idea of protestantism not born relig. But opp of politics v emperor. Ch attempt outlaw Lutheranism. Princes protest protestantism.
Charles V captures Fed of Szx yet Albertine & Ernestine – brothers. Augsberg 1555 7r Calvin in Geneva. Prog of Reformat defined by state. Take root only when secular author wants it.
Novely of authobiography. Usual confessional or other people. Liberation of self made man. Social mobility American dream. View of himself. Why write? Focus on text. Father court musicians. Say fam orig family of Florence. Repub myth of Flor C15th Bruni. Founded by Caesara imperial ambition. Trace origins honorable. Florentime patriotism. Not noble. Renaissance view dark ages restore nob. Humble birth. Nobility of deeds, not birht. Aspire ‘if he cares for truth and goodness, ought to write the story of his own life in his own hand’.
Treated as a patron ‘believed in neither God nor weekly debauch. God revealed directly to Cellini in imprisonment. Halo. Self canonised while imprisoned by Pope. Reformation prot attitude? Irreverent to papacy yet part italian scene. Opposite to Luther extreme version. Talented secular person as valuable as pope. Personal pagan notion earn place in memeory of city. Luth despise Renaissance, great man, great things, salvation.
Cellini IIIrd estate. Skill. Apprentice as goldsmith. Town free man therefore citizen artisan. Not a peasant. Promising negotiating. Flor pockets of freedom. Artisan artist. Designs yourself. Beyond functional. Meaning allegorical. Goldsmith tradid fancy but not art. Art of ren need intellectual thought. Ren despise manual labour. Neptune. Humanist not a labourer therfore sculptors & artists orig. Baninello sculptor enemy. Who does design who object belongs to . Chalice gold belongs. Or labour. Yet creative act creator or patron. Cellini says will give money back not chalice. Not tied. Gets another to pay more. Cardinal Ferrara. Attempt become full indep artist. Republic Elite and papacy. Re assert conspiculous expenditure. Design to over qwe. Lost not of classical harmony
Direct pol message coinae for Pope. Pope like emperor. Francis I desingn fountain at Fontainbleu allegorical four branches learning generosity. Makes money and appeal to 2 estates. Politic propaganda. No help to 3rd estate.
Religion and nationhood
Historians had ignored now rediscovered.
Ren invents middle ages
Ref single great divide nothing has bridged.
When modern history begin?
W europe must not be obsessed with change. Hoc es corpus. Hocus Pocus.
Otto Ren C10th
Keep in touch to see how far come on.
Middle ages central 1000yrs of Euro development
500BC – 500AD Rom emp end
500 – 1500 Middle ages
Ten lifetimes fall Rom Emp idea of Rom order and race goes. Racepublica. In place of puble theme to private interest. Quasi tribal. Nomadic. Barb. Private customs. Germanic culture. Sum of feudalism. Fills vacuum of law admin and legions which embodied order of Rome. Then littleness of personal ties. Public power in private hands. Protection service.
Rome remains as an ideal.
Law and society at the Visogothic kingdom. Whole idea of kingship Roman. Midd ages Feudal and Rom not happy relat. Feudal monarchy not feudal king. Feudal allegiance to monarchy.
Bind together by guardians of power of words Christianity and clergy. Rom surv and feudal anarchy most pronounced by yr 1000. Dark Ages. Then possibilities open up. Burgundy overrun Vikings Saracens Magyars. Rom survival? No rec survival of Russia mongol invasions destroy towns. Islam. Vikings. Any triumph
After 1000. Settlement. Marked by estab of eccles framework. Church impose intellect, ideol and spiritual structure. Order such held together Peace and truce of God. No need behave like gangster. Oblig to protect workers work, fight, pray. By end C11th Gregorian Revolution reverse pope and emperor spiritual supreme. End C11 crusades harness monastery on move not follow King by Christ. Went to Jesus not Spain more plunder. Church make sense of world. Cathedrals power stats office blocks founded in Roman law. No justif in bible. Sustains C12th Renaissance clergy not laity. Only comes apart with Reformation. Not long or short term. Unpicked. Renaiss embodies central urban lay culture of city Italy. Assert sense of time meaning money not belong to God. Liberation of laity. Clerical learning broken. Secular rulers local princeps. Bourkhart 1870 grim forsee mass soc saw fascism cannot predict.